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1 March 2017 PROPOFOL AS AN IMMERSION ANESTHETIC AND IN A MINIMUM ANESTHETIC CONCENTRATION (MAC) REDUCTION MODEL IN GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS)
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Abstract

Propofol is a novel immersion anesthetic in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Objectives were to characterize propofol as an anesthetic and assess its suitability in a minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) reduction model. Using a crossover design, eight goldfish were submerged in 1, 5, or 10 mg/L propofol. Data included induction time, recovery time, heart rate, opercular rate, and response to supramaximal stimulation. Baseline MAC (Dixon's up-and-down method) was determined, and 15 fish were anesthetized with propofol on 4 consecutive days with MAC determination on the fifth day, weekly, for 1 mo. Using a crossover design, MAC of propofol (n = 15) was determined 1 hr following administration of i.m. butorphanol 0.05, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04 mg/kg, ketoprofen 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg, morphine 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, or saline 1 ml/kg. Comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (P < 0.05) and Tango's score confidence interval. Propofol at 1 mg/L did not produce anesthesia. Induction time with 10 mg/L (112, 84–166 s) was faster than 5 mg/L (233, 150–289 s; P = 0.0078). Heart and opercular rates for 5 and 10 mg/L were 36 (24–72) beats/min, 58 (44–68) operculations/min and 39 (20–48) beats/min, 57 (48–80) operculations/min, respectively. Recovery time was 249 (143–396) s and 299 (117–886) s with 5 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Response to supramaximal stimulation was not significantly different with 5 mg/L (1/8) compared with 10 mg/L (0/8). Baseline and weekly MAC following daily exposure was 8.4 and 9.0, 8.1, 8.1, and 8.7 mg/L, respectively. MAC reduction was no more than 8% following any drug or dosage. Propofol at 5 and 10 mg/L produced anesthesia, and anesthetic needs were similar following repeated exposure. Propofol was not suitable to test MAC reduction in goldfish in this study.

Copyright 2017 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Julie A. Balko, Sarah K. Wilson, Gregory A. Lewbart, Brian R. Gaines, and Lysa P. Posner "PROPOFOL AS AN IMMERSION ANESTHETIC AND IN A MINIMUM ANESTHETIC CONCENTRATION (MAC) REDUCTION MODEL IN GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 48(1), 48-54, (1 March 2017). https://doi.org/10.1638/2016-0079.1
Received: 4 April 2016; Published: 1 March 2017
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