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1 March 2017 CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE ASSOCIATED WITH PREGNANCY IN OKAPI (OKAPIA JOHNSTONI)
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Abstract

Acute signs associated with cardiovascular disease occurred in three pregnant okapi (Okapia johnstoni) during early to midgestation and progressed to congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed antemortem using echocardiography and plasma cardiac troponin levels. Clinical signs included decreased activity, hyporexia, tachypnea, dyspnea, flared nostrils, and productive coughing with copious amounts of foamy nasal discharge. Parenteral and oral treatment with furosemide, enalapril, and spironolactone controlled clinical signs in the three okapi allowing each to carry out one pregnancy to term. Two okapi carried the first pregnancy to term after showing signs, while one okapi aborted the first calf and gave birth to a healthy calf in a subsequent pregnancy. Subsequent pregnancy in one okapi ended with abortion and associated dystocia and endometritis. Following parturition, clinical signs associated with heart failure resolved in all three individuals; serial echocardiography in two individuals showed improvement in fractional shortening and left atrial size and all three okapi showed markedly decreased pleural effusion and resolution of pulmonary edema. However, subsequent pregnancies in all three okapi induced respiratory distress and recurrence of congestive heart failure; one okapi died from congestive heart failure associated with subsequent pregnancy. This case series describes the clinical presentation and pathologic findings of congestive heart failure during pregnancy in adult okapi.

Copyright 2017 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Joshua D. Warren, Copper Aitken-Palmer, Alan D. Weldon, Joseph P. Flanagan, Lauren L. Howard, Michael M. Garner, and Scott B. Citino "CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE ASSOCIATED WITH PREGNANCY IN OKAPI (OKAPIA JOHNSTONI)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 48(1), 179-188, (1 March 2017). https://doi.org/10.1638/2016-0090.1
Received: 23 April 2016; Published: 1 March 2017
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