Camels (Camelus dromedarius) are important, multipurpose local animals in Iran. Despite their importance, camelid parasitic diseases have not received adequate attention in the veterinary literature. The present study investigated the prevalence of, and molecularly identified, camel piroplasms in Iran. Blood samples from 248 camels from five different regions of Iran were screened for the presence of piroplasmid infection using an 18SrRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing method. Of the 248 samples, 16 were positive for piroplasms via PCR (6.45%). Ten PCR amplicons with expected sizes were sequenced for molecular characterization. Three camels were infected with Babesia caballi and seven with Theileria equi. Statistical analysis showed that age, sex, and location were not risk factors for infection with piroplasmids in camels.
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