A 9-yr-old, entire female captive rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) was presented with a 1-wk history of sialorrhea. On clinical examination, a mass was identified, encompassing the rostral mandible and intermandibular area, with associated mucosal ulceration, marked gingival recession, and loosening or loss of adjacent teeth. Skull radiography and cytology of fine-needle aspirates of the mass were suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. Based on a suspected poor prognosis, the animal was humanely euthanized. Postmortem histological examination of samples confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma with invasion of mandibular bone. Neoplasia is uncommonly reported in hyraxes, which has led to the assumption that they may share mechanisms of cancer resistance with elephants, their closest extant relatives. This is the first report of squamous cell carcinoma in this species.
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