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1 December 2005 TOXICITY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. ISRAELENSIS FORMULATIONS, SPINOSAD, AND SELECTED SYNTHETIC INSECTICIDES TO CHIRONOMUS TEPPERI LARVAE
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Abstract

Three Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (BTi) formulations, the bacterial metabolite spinosad, and 7 synthetic insecticides were bioassayed against 4th instars of Chironomus tepperi, a serious pest of rice in southern Australia. The BTi formulations returned 48-h product median lethal concentration (LC50) values (25 ± 1°C) of between 0.59 mg/liter (VectoBac® water-dispersible granule [WDG], 3,000 international toxic units [ITU]/mg) and 2.15 mg/liter (Teknar® suspension concentrate [SC], 1,200 ITU/mg). When LC50 values were adjusted to reflect nominal ITU values of the 3 products, there was still substantial variation, with LC50 values ranging from 1,770 ITU/liter (VectoBac WDG) to 2,580 ITU/liter (Teknar SC). Aquabac® SC (1,200 ITU/mg) showed intermediate activity. Differential activity between formulations may reflect faster settling rates in the more active formulations, which may be a beneficial characteristic when controlling benthic species such as C. tepperi. Spinosad (24-h LC50=28.9 μg active ingredient [AI]/liter) and the synthetic insecticides we evaluated were all substantially more active than BTi. The highest activity was shown by the neonicotinoid compounds thiacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin, which all returned 24-h LC50 values between 1 and 3 μg AI/liter. Indoxacarb and thiomethoxam showed the lowest activity of the synthetic compounds evaluated.

M. M. STEVENS, S. HELLIWELL, and P. A. HUGHES "TOXICITY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. ISRAELENSIS FORMULATIONS, SPINOSAD, AND SELECTED SYNTHETIC INSECTICIDES TO CHIRONOMUS TEPPERI LARVAE," Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 21(4), 446-450, (1 December 2005). https://doi.org/10.2987/8756-971X(2006)21[446:TOBTVI]2.0.CO;2
Published: 1 December 2005
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