The effects of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen were evaluated on the mortality, fecundity, longevity, and predation capability of 2 species of copepods, Mesocyclops pehpeiensis Hu and Megacyclops viridis (Jurine), under laboratory conditions. Pyriproxyfen showed no significant effects on either the development or reproduction of M. pehpeiensis at 0.1 ppm, which is a 10-fold greater concentration than the reported effective dosage for controlling mosquito larvae (0.01 ppm). In contrast, the development of M. viridis was impaired by pyriproxyfen at 0.1 ppm. An 80% reduction in nauplius survivorship was observed in the experimental (treated) group compared with the control group. Although the application of pyriproxyfen caused high mortality in the nauplius stage of this species, the pyriproxyfen-treated group developed faster, killed more mosquito larvae, yielded more eggs per oviposition event, and survived longer than the control group. These results indicate that pyriproxyfen caused mortality in the earlier stages of this sensitive species but that the surviving individuals were those that were selected for significantly faster development, better predation ability, and greater longevity during their reproductive stage. Therefore, under natural conditions, pyriproxyfen would cause modifications in the characteristics of a copepod population rather than its complete loss. Our results suggest that the combined application of copepods and pyriproxyfen to control Aedes populations is feasible. However, repeated application of pyriproxyfen may cause changes in copepod populations and communities in the affected ecosystem.