Data on molecularly identified adult and larval mosquitoes collected from 104 sites from the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2007 were used to test the predictive ability of recently reported ecological niche models (ENMs) for 8 potential malaria vectors. The ENMs, based on the program Maxent and the least presence threshold criterion, predicted 100% of new collection locations for Anopheles sinensis, An. belenrae, An. pullus, and An. sineroides; 96% of locations for An. kleini; and 83% for An. lesteri, but were relatively unsuccessful for the infrequently collected non-Hyrcanus group species An. koreicus and An. lindesayi japonicas. The ENMs produced with the use of Maxent had fewer omission errors than those using the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Prediction program. The results emphasize the importance of independent test data for validation and improvement of ENMs, and lend support for the further development of ENMs for predicting the distribution of malaria vectors in the ROK.
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