Malaria control methods rely mostly on adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying with insecticides. Plants such as endod (Phytolacca dodecandra) can potentially be used for the control of mosquito larvae as a supplement to adult control methods. Following the discovery of endod, a molluscicide plant, more than 5 decades ago in Ethiopia, subsequent studies have shown that its potency can further be increased by simple procedures such as aging endod berry powder in water. This study was conducted to evaluate the killing effect of fresh and aged endod solution against 4th-stage larvae of Anopheles arabiensis. Laboratory-reared An. arabiensis larvae exposed to different concentrations of endod preparation using distilled or spring water had 50% lethal concentration (LC50) = 49.6 ppm and 90% lethal concentration (LC90) = 234 ppm for fresh and LC50 = 36.4 ppm and LC90 = 115.7 ppm for the aged endod solution in distilled water against the laboratory population. Against field-collected larvae of the same species, aged preparations in habitat water resulted in higher LC50 (472.7 ppm) and LC90 (691 ppm) values, with only a slight improvement over fresh preparations in habitat water (LC50 = 456.2 ppm; LC90 = 896.1 ppm). In general, although aged preparations of endod required lower concentrations than fresh to kill at least 90% of the larvae, these concentrations were much higher (12–70×) than that required for schistosome-transmitting snails.
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