The droplet spectrum of a mosquito adulticide spray plume determines its ability to drift through the target area, impinge on the mosquito, deliver a toxic dose, and the risk of environmental contamination. This paper provides data on droplet spectra produced from 6 nozzles in a high-pressure nozzle spray system and 5 rotary nozzle systems for common mosquito adulticides. Spray plume spectra were measured by laser diffraction. High-pressure nozzles were evaluated at pressures ranging from 500 psi to 6,000 psi. Rotary nozzles were evaluated at rotational speeds ranging from 500 rpm to 24,000 rpm. Measurements were made at wind speeds of 129 km/h (80 mph) to 225 km/h (140 mph). Adulticides included were Fyfanon®, Aqua-Reslin®, Dibrom®, Duet®, Permanone®, and the inert mineral oil, Orchex® 796. High-pressure nozzles produced spray plumes within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) label requirements for all configurations tested except for one at a wind speed of 225 km/h, BETE® MW125. Air speed had no significant effect on the spray plume volume median diameter (Dv(0.5)) at the speeds tested with Fyfanon®. The spray plume 90% drop volume diameter (Dv(0.9)) significantly decreased, 13% at the higher wind speed of 225 km/h. Drop size was inversely related to pressure. Dilution of the product formulations increased the Dv(0.5) of the spray plume but it did not exceed the label requirements. For the PJ15 nozzle, orientation of the nozzle into the wind of up to 135° showed a significant increase in Dv(0.5) at 500 psi, 750 psi, and 1,500 psi. The Dv(0.5) varied <5 μm over the 3 angles examined for any specific pressure. Rotary nozzles produced spray plumes within the EPA label requirements for all test configurations examined. Air speed had no significant effect on Dv(0.5) or Dv(0.9) of the plume at speeds tested with Fyfanon for the ASC A20 nozzle. The rotary AU5000 nozzle using Orchex 796 produced plumes of larger drops in all configurations than any of the rotary nozzles of similar configurations using active ingredient formulations and within EPA label requirements.
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