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Rusa unicolor (Kerr, 1792), or sambar, is the largest Oriental deer. Seven subspecies occur in varied habitats and elevations from India and Sri Lanka throughout southeastern Asia. Body mass and antler length decrease from west to east. R. unicolor is considered ancestral relative to the form of its male-only antlers and social behavior. Populations are vulnerable because of overexploitation for subsistence and markets in meat and antlers. R. unicolor was elevated by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources from no status in 2006 to “Vulnerable” in 2008 because of >50% decline in many populations over the past 3 generations. It is well represented in zoos and private collections and is introduced in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States.
Peromycus schmidlyiBradley et al., 2004, is a Reithrodontomyine (formally Peromyscini) rodent commonly called Schmidly's deermouse. It is endemic to Mexico, known only from Durango, Sinaloa, and Sonora at elevations greater than 2,000 m. It inhabits rocky hillsides in the pine-oak forest regions of the northern and central portions of the Sierra Madre Occidental. P. schmidlyi is a member of the P. boylii species group and is closely related to P. beatae and P. levipes. At this time, it is not considered to be a species deserving special conservation concern.
Number 873: CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI (PILOSA: MEGALONYCHIDAE)
Choloepus hoffmanniPeters, 1858 (Hoffmann's two-toed sloth) is 1 of 2 extant two-toed sloths. A high-canopy folivore, C. hoffmanni has a disjunct range with a northern population in Central America and northern South America and a southern population in South America. C. hoffmanni is listed as “Least Concern” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources because of its wide distribution.
Number 874: TAMANDUA MEXICANA (PILOSA: MYRMECOPHAGIDAE)
Tamandua mexicana (Saussure, 1860) is a medium-sized anteater commonly known as the northern tamandua or oso hormiguero. It has an elongated head and is toothless, with a slender and sticky tongue and a prehensile tail. Its fur has a black patch across the back like a vest worn backward against a pale yellow background. It is present from southern Mexico to the northwest Andes in South America; it also lives in many different forested ecosystems including transformed areas. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources classifies T. mexicana as “Least Concern” because it has a wide distribution, presumably large population, and because it is represented in protected areas, as well as anthropogenic ecosystems. In some areas local laws protect T. mexicana from exploitation and habitat destruction.
Number 875: TAMANDUA TETRADACTYLA (PILOSA: MYRMECOPHAGIDAE)
Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758), commonly called the southern tamandua, is 1 of 2 extant, primarily arboreal anteaters. It is distributed over northern and central South America east of the Andes and uses a diverse array of habitats including Chaco, grasslands, and transitional forests. Its diet is primarily one of social ants and termites. It is listed as “Least Concern” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources due to its wide distribution. Primary threats to T. tetradactyla are fire, habitat loss, highway mortality, and hunting.
Number 876: MARTES ZIBELLINA (CARNIVORA: MUSTELIDAE)
Martes zibellina (Linnaeus, 1758) is a mustelid commonly called the sable. It is a widespread Siberian species that inhabits a spectrum of localities in the mountain and plain taiga, and also coniferous and deciduous forests in 6 countries. Main resources and largest part of its distribution area are located in Russia. M. zibellina is common in many zoos of large cities and breeding populations are maintained in fur farms in the Russian Federation, Finland, and probably other countries. M. zibellina is comparatively well studied, primarily because of its value as a furbearer. The number of individuals is estimated in the range of 1.1–1.3 million and recent estimates of annual production (after 2000) are 300,000–400,000 pelts from the wild. Annual sales at auctions from fur farms are about 10,000–20,000 pelts.
Number 877: PROCYON PYGMAEUS (CARNIVORA: PROCYONIDAE)
Procyon pygmaeusMerriam, 1901, commonly called the Cozumel raccoon, is a procyonid that is endemic to Cozumel Island, Mexico. It is the smallest member of the genus (about 45% lighter and 15–37% smaller in linear measurements than the mainland P. lotor). P. pygmaeus prefers mangrove stands and sandy areas, but it also can be found in semievergreen and subdeciduous tropical forests and agricultural areas. Diet is primarily composed of crabs followed by fruits, insects, crayfish, and small vertebrates. P. pygmaeus is listed as “Critically Endangered” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Introduced congeners and predators, parasite and disease spillover from exotic animals, habitat fragmentation as a result of the expansion and widening of the road system and rapid development of other infrastructure for tourism, and hurricanes are the primary threats to this species.
Number 878: BLARINA HYLOPHAGA (SORICOMORPHA: SORICIDAE)
Blarina hylophaga (Elliot, 1899) is a soricid commonly called Elliot's short-tailed shrew. A short-legged, robust shrew with a long, pointed snout and a short tail; it is 1 of 4 species in the genus Blarina. It occurs throughout most of the Great Plains of the United States, where it inhabits moist, well-drained grassland and riparian areas with deep leaf litter. It is listed as a species of greatest conservation need in Iowa and at possible risk in Texas, which might be due to the limited knowledge of the species throughout its geographic range.
Number 879: GEOMYS BURSARIUS (RODENTIA: GEOMYIDAE)
Geomys bursarius (Shaw, 1800) is a geomyid commonly called the plains pocket gopher. A stocky rodent morphologically adapted for a fossorial life, it is 1 of 11 species in the genus Geomys. It occurs in southern Manitoba, Canada, and throughout the central United States southward to Texas. It prefers open grasslands and agricultural fields and is considered an economic pest. The subspecies G. bursarius ozarkensis is considered a species of special concern only occurring in Arkansas and G. bursarius illinoensis is considered a species of special concern in Indiana.
Number 880: TRACHYPITHECUS DELACOURI (PRIMATES: CERCOPITHECIDAE)
Trachypithecus delacouri (Osgood, 1932), commonly called Delacour's langur or lutung, is a black and white lutung (leaf monkey) endemic to northern Vietnam. It is a diurnal and primarily arboreal species, but spends more time on the ground than other species of Trachypithecus. T. delacouri lives among limestone cliffs and consumes the leaves of a broad spectrum of plant species but its choice of food items tends to be based on the chemical makeup of the plant phenophases with protein content the strongest predictor of leaf selection. Territorial, but with overlapping territories, it usually lives in single-male–multifemale groups of 5–30, although 2 adult males may be present. With a declining population perhaps as low as 200 individuals in 17 or fewer isolated populations, it is 1 of the world's most endangered primates.
Number 881: MYRMECOBIUS FASCIATUS (DASYUROMORPHIA: MYRMECOBIIDAE)
Myrmecobius fasciatusWaterhouse, 1836, is a small to medium-sized dasyuromorph marsupial known as the numbat. M. fasciatus is unusual among marsupials in that it is diurnal and feeds exclusively on termites, and it has a number of characteristic adaptations associated with this specialized niche. M. fasciatus has at least 8 postcanine teeth in the lower jaw; the dentition is variable between individuals and even between the 2 sides of the jaw of the same individual. Although widespread throughout southern Australia at the time of European settlement, M. fasciatus is currently restricted to 2 naturally occurring populations in the southwestern portion of Western Australia, and some additional populations within its historic range resulting from successful reintroductions. It is currently listed as “Endangered.”
Number 882: PETAURUS GRACILIS (DIPROTODONTIA: PETAURIDAE)
Petaurus gracilis (De Vis, 1883) is a gliding possum commonly known as the mahogany glider. This species is endemic to open sclerophyll woodland between Tully and Ingham in North Queensland, Australia. Within its distribution P. gracilis occurs in forests dominated by trees of the genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia, Melaleuca, and Acacia. This species is recognized as an endangered species because of habitat loss, high degree of fragmentation of the remaining habitat, its naturally limited distribution, lack of habitat protected within national parks, and the degradation of its habitat from the transition to rain forest and thickening of sclerophyllous vegetation in much of its habitat.
Number 883: SIGMODON ARIZONAE (RODENTIA: CRICETIDAE)
Sigmodon arizonaeMearns, 1890, is a cricetid commonly called the Arizona cotton rat. S. arizonae is a large species of cotton rat with brownish black dorsal pelage and silvery or whitish underparts. Ranging from central Arizona in the United States south to Nayarit in Mexico with a disjunct population along the lower Colorado River in southwestern Arizona and California, it is primarily associated with riparian corridors, but also is found in more arid habitats such as semidesert grassland. Two subspecies of S. arizonae appear to be extinct and a 3rd subspecies is imperiled. However, in the majority of its range, S. arizonae is considered common and is not of conservation concern.
Number 884: MARMOTA CALIGATA (RODENTIA: SCIURIDAE)
Marmota caligata (Eschscholtz, 1829), a large ground squirrel commonly called the hoary marmot, is 1 of 15 species of extant marmots. It is distributed in western North America from Alaska and Canada south to Washington and Montana and is found at elevations ranging from sea level to 2,500 m. M. caligata prefers alpine and subalpine boulder piles and talus slopes surrounded by meadows. The species is listed as “Least Concern” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, although populations of Montague Island and Glacier Bay are of conservation concern by the State of Alaska.
Number 885: PEROMYSCUS GUARDIA (RODENTIA: CRICETIDAE)
Peromyscus guardiaTownsend, 1912 is a small, gray-brown cricetid commonly called the La Guarda deermouse. It is a Mexican endemic rodent from Angel de la Guarda Island and 2 islets off the northern tip of Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Populations of P. guardia were common up until the mid-1960s but have since declined. This species is currently listed as “Critically Endangered” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Number 886: STENO BREDANENSIS (CETACEA: DELPHINIDAE)
Steno bredanensis (Cuvier in Lesson, 1828) is a small odontocete commonly called the rough-toothed dolphin. A slender, gray dolphin with a slightly darker cape, this species is most easily distinguished from other small delphinids by a gradually sloping forehead and a long rostrum. It is the only species in the genus Steno. Despite reports of sightings or stranded specimens from all tropical and subtropical oceans, the species is thought to typically occur in low abundance. The conservation status of S. bredanensis is poorly known.
Rhinoceros sondaicusDesmarest, 1822, commonly called the Javan rhinoceros or lesser one-horned rhinoceros, is the most critically endangered large mammal on Earth with only 40–50 extant individuals in 2 disjunct and distant populations: most in Ujung Kulon, West Java, and only 2–6 (optimistically) in Cat Loc, Vietnam. R. sondaicus is polytypic with 3 recognized subspecies: R. s. sondaicus (currently West Java), R. s. inermis (formerly Sunderbunds; no doubt extinct), and R. s. annamiticus (Vietnam; perhaps now extinct). R. sondaicus is a browser and currently occupies lowland semievergreen secondary forests in Java and marginal habitat in Vietnam; it was once more widespread and abundant, likely using a greater variety of habitats. R. sondaicus has a very spotty history of husbandry, and no individuals are currently in captivity. Conservation focuses on protection from poaching and habitat loss. Following decades-long discussion of captive breeding and establishment of a 3rd wild population, conservation and governmental agencies appear closer to taking such seriously needed action on the latter.
Peromyscus furvusAllen and Chapman, 1897 is a cricetid rodent commonly called the blackish deermouse because of its characteristically dark pelage coloration. It is 1 of 56 species in the genus Peromyscus and is of large size compared with the majority of its congeners. Its distribution is restricted to moderate- to high-elevation cloud forests along the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources' status was recently reassessed and set to “Data Deficient,” although P. furvus has lost the majority of its natural habitat to deforestation. Sequence data indicate that P. furvus may be a composite taxon, with the southern population forming an independent evolutionary lineage.
Tamias umbrinusAllen, 1890, a medium-sized chipmunk commonly called the Uinta chipmunk, is 1 of about 25 species of extant chipmunks. It is distributed in the western United States from southern Montana south to Arizona and from Colorado west to eastern California. T. umbrinus prefers montane and subalpine coniferous forest at elevations between 1,417 and 3,660 m. The species is listed as “Least Concern” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources; although the distribution is fragmented, the species is common locally and the distribution includes protected areas.