The rocky shoals spider-lily (Hymenocallis coronaria (J. Le Conte) Kunth inhabits select rocky shoals in certain Piedmont rivers at, and above, the Fall Line in scattered populations in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. One of the largest and most northern populations is located in the Catawba River at Landsford Canal State Park, South Carolina. The pollination ecology of this plant has not been fully explored. Sphingophily (Lepidoptera) (hawkmoth) pollination has been suggested as the likeliest pollinator syndrome for H. coronaria. Throughout the peak blooming season (May — June 2011 and 2012) we made numerous observations and documented potential pollinators/insect visitors of H. coronaria with camera equipment at various times of the day and night. We recorded 623 total flower visits during the 96 hours of camera and observation time. Of the nineteen species of flower visitors documented. Apidae: Bombus spp. (Bumblebees). Hesperiidae: Epargyreus clarus Cramer (Silver spotted skipper), Papilionidae: Papilio glaucus Linnaeus (Tiger swallowtail), and Battus philenor Linnaeus (Pipevine swallowtail) were the most common visitors, comprising over 80% of the visitations. Using a Chi-square test we determined that insects were attracted to different parts of the flower bloom (P < 0.01). The majority of flower visitors were observed during the morning and midday hours (P = 0.01). Our results indicate that numerous insect species may act as potential pollinators for H. coronaria and that H. coronaria does not seem to fit into a rigid pollinator syndrome, but rather depends on a generalist pollinator community.
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Vol. 34 • No. 3