A wild population of Loesel's twayblade, Liparis loeselii (L.) Richard (Orchidaceae), in Franklin County, Massachusetts, was studied from 1993 to 1999. Mortality in one subpopulation was 97% over a five year interval, but population size declined only 52% in the same period, suggesting that recruitment, rather than longevity of individuals, is an important factor in maintenance of the population. Mean leaf length, height, and number of flowers increased over the duration of the study, perhaps due to competition. Individuals with flowers and fruit in one year were more likely to produce flowers and fruit in the following year than those without flowers or fruit. Herbivore activity appeared to strongly influence survivorship. The decline of this species in many parts of its North American range may be a result of both habitat destruction and reforestation since the decline of agriculture in the 19th century.
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