The Australian species of the bottlebrush genus Callistemon R. Brown are not sufficiently distinct from Melaleuca L. for Callistemon to be maintained as a separate genus. The primary character states used to justify maintenance of Callistemon are that its staminal filaments are free and not grouped. This breaks down as fused filaments in five groups, the defining features of Melaleuca, occur in some Callistemon species. Therefore, it is concluded that the two genera should be combined. The following new names are proposed for species being treated in a forthcoming account of Melaleuca for Flora of Australia: M. faucicola Craven, M. flammea Craven, M. orophila Craven, M. paludicola Craven, M. salicina Craven, M. virens Craven, and M. williamsii Craven. The following new combinations are established as transferred from Callistemon: M. brachyandra (Lindley) Craven, M. chisholmii (Cheel) Craven, M. comboynensis (Cheel) Craven, M. flavovirens (Cheel) Craven, M. formosa (S. T. Blake) Craven, M. montana (S. T. Blake) Craven, M. pachyphylla (Cheel) Craven, M. pearsonii (R. D. Spencer & Lumley) Craven, M. phoenicea (Lindley) Craven, M. pityoides (F. Mueller) Craven, M. polandii (F. M. Bailey) Craven, M. recurva (R. D. Spencer & Lumley) Craven, M. shiressii (Blakely) Craven, and M. subulata (Cheel) Craven. The following new combinations are also established from Metrosideros: Melaleuca linearifolia (Link) Craven, M. linearis var. pinifolia (Wendland) Craven, M. pallida (Bonpland) Craven, and M. rugulosa (Schlechtendal ex Link) Craven. Issues concerning a name in Melaleuca for the accepted species presently known as Callistemon glaucus (Bonpland) Sweet are mentioned.
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