Tricarpelema africanum Faden is described from Central Africa, representing the first African species of this otherwise Asian genus. The species is so distinct that Tricarpelema J. K. Morton subgen. Keatingia Faden is described for it, based mainly on its unusual vegetative morphology. Tricarpelema brevipedicellatum Faden is described from two Vietnamese collections that were previously treated as Aneilema montanum (Wight) Wallich ex C. B. Clarke or Dictyospermum montanum Wight. It differs from all other continental Asian species by its one-seeded locules. A key to all eight named Tricarpelema species is provided, along with a synopsis of the species, including full taxonomy and synonymy. Pollia subumbellata C. B. Clarke var. glabra Hallier f. is a new synonym for T. philippense (Panigrahi) Faden. The following names are lectotypified: T. giganteum (Hasskarl) H. Hara, T. philippense (Panigrahi) Faden, and Pollia subumbellata C. B. Clarke var. glabra Hallier f.
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