Descriptions and illustrations of three new Brazilian species of the genus Rauvolfia L. (Apocynaceae, Rauvolfioideae), R. capixabae I. Koch & Kinoshita-Gouvêa, R. gracilis I. Koch & Kinoshita-Gouvêa, and R. pruinosifolia I. Koch & Kinoshita-Gouvêa, are presented. Rauvolfia blanchetii A. DC., R. mollis S. Moore, and R. divergens Markgraf are newly synonymized under R. ligustrina Willdenow, R. pernambucensis Emygdio under R. moricandii A. DC., and R. sessilifolia S. Moore under R. weddelliana Müller Argoviensis. Lectotypes for R. blanchetii and R. ternifolia Kunth are designated; furthermore, comments to clarify the complicated typification of R. ligustrina and R. ternifolia are presented.
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