A new species, Parodia gaucha M. Machado & Larocca (Cactaceae, Notocacteae), from Encruzilhada do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new species is morphologically very similar to P. muricata (Otto ex Pfeiffer) Hofacker but can be distinguished from the latter by the presence of a conical projection below each areole, the higher number of shallower and narrower ribs, more closely spaced areoles, higher number of spines, different color of the spines, and seeds with minutely striate testa-cell surfaces.
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Vol. 18 • No. 2