Two new species of Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae) from Brazil belonging to section Xiphizusa (Reichenbach f.) Cogniaux are described and illustrated. Both species are epiphytic, but grow in different vegetational types. Bulbophyllum gehrtii E. C. Smidt & Borba is native to cerrado vegetation in São Paulo and Minas Gerais states and is related to B. plumosum (Barbosa Rodrigues) Cogniaux, while B. teimosense E. C. Smidt & Borba grows in the Atlantic rainforest in southeastern Bahia State and is related to B. chloropterum Reichenbach f. According to IUCN Red List criteria, B. gehrtii is categorized as Endangered and B. teimosense as Critically Endangered.
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