A new species of Diandrolyra Stapf (Poaceae, Bambusoideae, Olyreae), D. pygmaea Soderstrom & Zuloaga ex R. P. Oliveira & L. G. Clark, from Bahia, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This species is known only from southern Bahia, growing in the Atlantic Forest region. It is compared and contrasted with its congeners, D. bicolor Stapf and D. tatianae Soderstrom & Zuloaga, and the Bahian distribution of the three species is mapped. Distinguishing features of D. pygmaea include its small stature and two (or three) pairs of spikelets per racemose inflorescence.
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