Two new Brazilian species of Phyllanthus L. are described and illustrated and their morphological affinities are discussed. Phyllanthus longipedicellatus M. J. Silva resembles P. augustinii Baill. but differs by its leaves oblong-falcate to falcate-asymmetrical with margins obscurely serrulate, and pistillate flowers with patelliform disk. Phyllanthus salesiae M. J. Silva is similar to P. rosmarinifolius Müller Argoviensis but it differs from the latter by its lacerate stipules, deeply lobed pistillate disk, incurved and bifid style, and seeds with darkish punctations. Both species are endemic to Brazil and known only from a single locality. The systematic position of both species with regard to the sections and subsections of Phyllanthus is also discussed.
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Vol. 19 • No. 2