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Two new species of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae) from the restinga of Brazil are described and illustrated. Ocotea arenicola L. C. S. Assis & Mello-Silva and O. ramosissima L. C. S. Assis & Mello-Silva are discovered from Espírito Santo and Bahia states, respectively. Their diagnostic features are indicated, and their relationships to other Ocotea species are discussed.
Clidemia fluminensis Baumgratz & D'El Rei Souza (section Staphidium (Naudin) Griseb., Melastomataceae, Miconieae), a new species from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new taxon occurs in Poço das Antas Biological Reserve in alluvial forest of the Atlantic Forest ecosystem. The new species is distinguished mainly by the scandent habit, membranous leaves, terminal inflorescences, and flowers with yellow petals with an obtuse and apiculate apex. It is related to C. conglomerata DC. and C. involucrata DC., sharing the glomeruliform inflorescence, the stamen connective not prolonged or appendaged, and the pilose ovary apex.
Cyperus absconditicoronatus Bauters, Reynders & Goetgh. and C. unispicatus Bauters, Reynders & Goetgh., two new species of Cyperus L. (Cyperaceae) from Angola and Zambia, are recognized. Cyperus absconditicoronatus is a tall species (55–100 cm) characterized by a scaled rhizome, a single terminal capitulum, a ciliated spikelet bract, and deciduous spikelets. Cyperus unispicatus can be recognized by a swollen and fibrous stem base growing from slender rhizomes, a single terminal spike, and short involucral bracts. The taxa are described and illustrated, and differences with the closest resembling species are discussed.
During the taxonomic revision of Taxithelium Spruce ex Mitt. (Pylaisiadelphaceae), species previously treated in the genus are excluded, and eight new combinations are presented here: Camptochaete novae-zeelandiae (E. B. Bartram & Dixon) P. E. A. S. Câmara, Chaetomitrium spuriosubtile (Broth.) P. E. A. S. Câmara, Phyllodon bilobatus (Dixon) P. E. A. S. Câmara, P. choiropyxis (Müll. Hal.) P. E. A. S. Câmara, P. glossoides (Bosch & Sande Lac.) P. E. A. S. Câmara, Sematophyllum borneense (Broth.) P. E. A. S. Câmara, S. mundulum (Sull.) P. E. A. S. Câmara, and Trichosteleum friedense (D. H. Norris & T. J. Kop.) P. E. A. S. Câmara. The new name Sematophyllum laevigatum P. E. A. S. Câmara is proposed for Hypnum trachaelocarpum Ångstr. Lectotypifications are also provided for Sigmatella choiropyxis Müll. Hal. and Hypnum trachaelocarpum Ångstr.
A new species, Strobilanthes ovata Y. F. Deng & J. R. I. Wood (Acanthaceae), is described and illustrated. The new species is another endemic species from Gaoligong Shan in southwest Yunnan similar to S. decipiens J. R. I. Wood, but differs in its glabrous leaves, winged rachis, the distant, spicate flowers, and the ovate, oblong-ovate, or rounded bracts.
The new combination Stillingia tenella (Pax & K. Hoffm.) Esser is proposed, which is based on an overlooked name originally described in Sapium Jacq. and replaces Stillingia yungasensis Belgrano & Pozner as a new synonym.
Two new species and one new variety of Chascolytrum Desv. (Poaceae) are described and illustrated. Chascolytrum latifolium Essi, Souza-Chies & Longhi-Wagner and C. juergensii var. angustilemma Essi, Souza-Chies & Longhi-Wagner occur in the southern Brazilian highlands, while C. altimontanum Essi, Souza-Chies & Longhi-Wagner occurs in the Bolivian highlands. Chascolytrum latifolium is related to C. subaristatum (Lam.) Desv., but differs mainly by the wider leaf blades and by some characteristics of the palea. Chascolytrum altimontanum is related to C. paleapiliferum (Parodi) Matthei and C. subaristatum, the main differences being the presence of flattened trichomes at the lemma base and the shape of the spikelets. Specimens of all these new taxa were included in a parallel molecular analysis, with the results supporting the new taxa as genetically divergent from the closest morphologically related species. In addition, Briza juergensii Hack. is transferred to Chascolytrum for the new combination C. juergensii (Hack.) Essi, Souza-Chies & Longhi-Wagner.
Astragalus minimus Vogel (Leguminosae) is endemic to the Andean region of South America, in Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and northwestern Argentina. This taxon belongs to a pulvinate species complex in the genus Astragalus L. (Leguminosae, Galegeae) from high mountain puna vegetation, between 4000 and 4500 m in the Neotropics. The A. minimus complex is newly delimited, in particular with information for the fruit, which was not described in Vogel's 1843 protologue. This new information allows the identification of A. tacorensis Gómez-Sosa as a species new to science; both taxa are morphologically described and illustrated.
This work is a part of a taxonomic revision of the Neotropical genus Hortia Vand. (Rutaceae), where three names (H. colombiana Gleason, H. chocoensis Cuatrec., and H. badinii M. Lisboa ex Groppo) are proposed as synonyms of H. brasiliana Vand. ex DC., and the name H. badinii is here validated. Additionally, another name in the Rutaceae, Dictyoloma peruvianum Planch., is proposed as a synonym of D. vandellianum A. Juss. Notes on the type collection of D. vandellianum are provided.
Two narrowly endemic species of Gentianaceae from northwestern Yunnan Province in China, Gentiana spathulisepala T. N. Ho & S. W. Liu and Swertia lihengiana T. N. Ho & S. W. Liu, are described, illustrated, and compared with their closest relatives. Keys are also provided for the allied species of G. spathulisepala and S. lihengiana, respectively.
Five new combinations in Schoenoplectus (Rchb.) Palla (Cyperaceae) are proposed for taxa occurring in China. All these taxa previously had been placed in Scirpus L. s.l., which has been split into segregate genera in the recent literature. The following transfers are made for taxa originally described from China: Schoenoplectus chuanus (Tang & F. T. Wang) S. Yun Liang & S. R. Zhang, its type from Jiangsu; S. jingmenensis (Tang & F. T. Wang) S. Yun Liang & S. R. Zhang, from Hubei; S. monocephalus (J. Q. He) S. Yun Liang & S. R. Zhang, from Anhui; S. pseudoarticulatus (L. K. Dai & S. M. Huang) S. Yun Liang & S. R. Zhang, from Hainan; and S. supinus (L.) Palla subsp. densicorrugatus (Tang & F. T. Wang) S. Yun Liang & S. R. Zhang, from Xinjiang.
Saussurea sugongii S. W. Liu & T. N. Ho and S. bartholomewii S. W. Liu & T. N. Ho (Asteraceae) are described from the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, China. The two new species are illustrated and compared with their closest relatives.
A new species is recognized here as part of the taxonomic revision of the Polygalaceae in southern Brazil. Polygala densiracemosa Lüdtke & Miotto belongs to Polygala L. subg. Polygala, which comprises around 88 species and 22 varieties in Brazil, being the best represented subgenus of Polygala in the Brazilian flora. Polygala densiracemosa can be confused with P. campestris Gardner and P. linoides Poir. by the resemblance of the flowers, fruits, and seeds and by the similar geographical distribution. However, P. densiracemosa is distinguished by a generally caespitose habit and dense racemes. The new species is described and illustrated, observations on habitat and distribution are provided, and differences among related taxa are discussed.
Casearia espiritosantensis R. Marquete & Mansano, a new species of Salicaceae from Espírito Santo, Brazil, is described and illustrated here. This species is similar to the widespread C. decandra Jacq. in having fasciculate inflorescences, lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate leaves, and 10 stamens. The new species differs by being a shrub and having smaller stipules, anthers with apical glands, hirsute ovaries, and clavate stigmas. Other diagnostic aspects of C. espiritosantensis are the sparsely serrate leaf margins and the stipules with glands at the base of the adaxial surface.
Rungia linifolia Nees var. saldanhae Mascar. & Janarth. (Acanthaceae), a new variety from Kottigehara in Charmadi Ghat, Karnataka State (Western Ghats), is described and illustrated. The new variety is very similar to the typical variety R. linifolia var. linifolia in its filiform branches, inwardly curved inflorescence axis, secund, four-ranked spikes with two flowerless bracts and two flowered bracts, lanceolate bracteoles with scarious margins, and superposed anther lobes with the lower one spurred. The new variety differs in its larger size, pubescent stems, ciliate leaf margin, elliptic-lanceolate bracts, and the compound, verrucose testa of the seed.
A new species of Jaltomata Schltdl. (Solanaceae) from Mexico is described and a key to the Jaltomata of Mexico is provided. Known only from the type locality, J. bohsiana Mione & D. M. Spooner is distinguished from the similar J. procumbens (Cav.) J. L. Gentry by having a purple flowering calyx to 6.8 mm diam., the calyx lobes both recurved and concave in cross section, and a fruiting calyx to 10 mm diam. In contrast, J. procumbens has a mostly green flowering calyx that is not recurved, the calyx lobes are not concave in cross section, with a diameter greater than 7 mm, and a fruiting calyx diameter greater than 10 mm.
Two new species of Cryptocarya R. Br., C. panamensis P. L. R. Moraes & van der Werff, from Colón, Panama, and C. yasuniensis P. L. R. Moraes & van der Werff, from Napo, Ecuador, are described and illustrated. Additionally, the occurrence of C. guianensis Meisn. in Ecuador is here reported for the first time.
A new species, Typhonium vermiforme V. D. Nguyen & Croat (Araceae), is described from living materials collected from Quang Binh Province in central Vietnam. It is similar to T. bachmaense V. D. Nguyen & Hett. and T. trilobatum Schott, but differs from the first species by its much shorter spathe (ca. 9 cm long) and the distinctive, filiform and intertwining staminodes. It differs from the second species in having a solitary leaf and a pedate leaf blade.
A new species of Camellia L. (Theaceae), C. maiana Orel, endemic to the Da Lat Plateau in southern Vietnam, is described and illustrated. The newly described species has variable-sized, ovate to obovate leaves; 2-whorled, terminal, sessile flowers exhibiting emarginate, opaque to translucently white, finely textured petals; a compound style consisting of four parts that are fused at the base; persistent bracteoles; and a superior 4-chambered ovary. The morphological evidence supports taxonomic placement as a transitional member of Camellia sect. Stereocarpus (Pierre) Sealy.
A new species of Spiranthera A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae, Galipeinae) is illustrated and described from Espírito Santo, Brazil. Spiranthera atlantica Pirani represents the first species record for the genus in the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil. The new taxon resembles the Amazonian S. guianensis Sandwith but differs by its smaller, few-flowered inflorescences and by the fruit and leaflet morphology.
A new species of Leguminosae (Caesalpinioideae), Browneopsis sanintiae Silverst., is described from the northern end of the Cauca Valley in the department of Risaralda, in western Colombia. It resembles the Amazonian species B. ucayalina Huber, but differs in having one vestigial petal or lacking petals (vs. three to four vestigial petals in B. ucalayina), fewer stamens, and pollen usually monoporate (vs. tetraporate in B. ucayalina). This is the first report of the genus Browneopsis Huber from the Cauca Valley.
A new species from Brazil, Cordia pilosa M. Stapf & Taroda (Cordiaceae), is described from northeastern Brazil. Illustrations and data on habitat, distribution, and phenology are provided. The new species belongs to Cordia sect. Superbiflorae Taroda, and it is distinguished from similar species in section Superbiflorae by its compact inflorescences and the pilose indument on the twigs, leaves, and inflorescence axes.
Alfaroa Standl. has five species with a total of 10 taxa ranging from southern Mexico to northern Colombia, although Costa Rica has the most (four), including the type species A. costaricensis Standl. A taxonomic treatment of the Juglandaceae for Flora Mesoamericana recognizes the new subspecies A. costaricensis subsp. septentrionalis D. E. Stone from Mexico and Guatemala as a northern variant. Review of A. guanacastensis D. E. Stone reduces the species to synonomy under A. manningii J. León. The widespread southeastern Asian genus Alfaropsis Iljinsk. ( = Engelhardia roxburghiana Wall.) is monotypic while possessing several morphological and molecular characters somewhat intermediate between New World Alfaroa and Oreomunnea Oerst., on the one hand, and Old World Engelhardia Lesch. ex Blume on the other. Although Alfaropsis was proposed in 1993, the generic name was not generally recognized until the phylogeny of extant and fossil Juglandaceae was examined by Manos et al. in 2007.
Anticipating the forthcoming first-ever published synthesis of the taxonomy, systematics, and nomenclature of the liverwort family Gymnomitriaceae H. Klinggr., where almost 800 names are treated in detail, we here provide 10 nomenclatural actions. Four new combinations are made: Gymnomitrion bolivianum (Steph.) Váňa, G. minutulum (Hässel) Váňa, G. nigrum (Grolle & Váňa) Váňa, and G. subintegrum (S. W. Arnell) Váňa. Lectotypification is presented for the following six names: Acolea brevissima Schleich. ex Dumort., G. sinense Müll. Frib., G. verrucosum W. E. Nicholson, Jungermannia sphacelata Giesecke ex Lindenb., J. divaricata Sm. var. latifolia Lindb. ex Norrl., and Marsupella disticha Steph.
Four new species of Ribes L. (Grossulariaceae) are described from Peru, three from the Amotape–Huancabamba Zone and one from the eastern slopes of the Andes in central Peru. Ribes chachapoyense Weigend & Breitkopf, R. tumerec Weigend & Breitkopf, and R. huancabambense Weigend & Breitkopf from the Amotape–Huancabamba Zone represent close allies of Ecuadorian species and underscore both the floristic connections of this region to Ecuador and its high levels of floristic distinctness and endemism. With these three new species, the species total for the Peruvian part of the Amotape–Huancabamba Zone now reaches 10, nearly half the species present in Peru. Ribes frankei Weigend & Breitkopf is possibly the most aberrant species of Ribes—it is a small, cushion-forming dwarf-shrub to 30 cm tall, with erect inflorescences that are virtually immersed in the leafy cushions. It is the smallest species of Ribes known so far and has been collected on vertical rock faces in the high Andes of Pasco in central Peru. The species total for Peruvian Ribes now reaches 23, which is nearly twice the number of species known for any other individual South American country, indicating that Peru, and especially the Amotape–Huancabamba Zone, represents the center of diversity of the genus in South America. Three of the newly described species are already at the brink of extinction due to habitat destruction (overgrazing, burning, mining, forest clearing: R. tumerec, R. frankei, R. huancabambense) and have to be considered as Critically Endangered. The fourth species, R. chachapoyense, has a slightly wider range and can be considered as only Endangered according to IUCN Red List criteria.
Fagopyrum pugense T. Yu (Polygonaceae, Polygonoideae), known only from Luojishan, Puge County, Sichuan Province, China, is described and illustrated. It is closely related to F. gracilipes (Hemsl.) Dammer ex Diels, but differs in the plants having thicker stems and branches with densely erect-villose pubescence, numerous nodes and short internodes, ovate to cordate leaves that are minutely rugose with small pustules, and small achenes. The karyotype studies were also conducted, and the results are presented.