Three species of Calathea G. Mey. with distichous bracts, assigned to Calathea sect. Calathea (Marantaceae), are described as new from Panama: C. carlae H. Kenn., C. chiriquensis H. Kenn., and C. fredgandersii H. Kenn. All three are found in montane wet or cloud forest habitats at middle to higher elevations, 800–1400 m. Calathea carlae also occurs in Costa Rica, while the other two are endemic to Panama. Calathea carlae differs from related species by the leaf length:width ratios of 1.7–2.13:1, cream-colored bracts, claviculate bracteoles, yellow corollas, and yellow or pink-purple staminodes. Calathea chiriquensis is distinguished by the light green bracts, leaf length:width ratios of 1.3–1.56:1, absence of bracteoles, flowers borne singly rather than in pairs, and yellow flowers. Calathea fredgandersii is distinguished by the subround leaf, leaf length:width ratios of 1.15–1.55:1, a purple band along the leaf margin, a deep purple leaf sheath, verruculose petioles, white bracts, membranous bracteoles, white corollas, and white or pale pink to lilac staminodes.
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