Four new species of Barbacenia Vand. (Velloziaceae) from Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brazil, are described. Barbacenia piranga Mello-Silva, B. serracabralea Mello-Silva, B. tuba Mello-Silva & N. L. Menezes, and B. vellozioides Mello-Silva combine characteristics ascribed to Aylthonia N. L. Menezes and Pleurostima Raf., which have been split from Barbacenia s.l. Barbacenia serracabralea shares leaf trichomes similar to those of Aylthonia, the anther insertion and stigmas of Pleurostima, and fruits similar to those of Barbacenia. Barbacenia piranga and B. tuba show tristichous phyllotaxis, serrulate leaf margins and basifixed anthers that would fit Pleurostima, but the long hypanthial tube, short apical, confluent stigmas lobes, and the loculicidal capsules of B. tuba correspond to those seen in Aylthonia. In B. vellozioides, the basifixed anthers and lateral stigma lobes would suggest placement in Pleurostima. Nevertheless, its capsule is not dehiscent by many intercostal openings, as in Pleurostima, but rather by apical pores. For these reasons, beyond obscuring the alleged distinctions among these three genera, these four are new entities. They are special also for their beauty and rarity.
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