Six new species of Madagascan Argomuellera Pax are recognized. Argomuellera bilocularis McPherson is unique in the genus in having a 2-locular ovary; A. gillespieae McPherson, restricted to the Manongarivo Massif, has leaves more than 6 cm wide and pistillate sepals less than 3 mm long; A. integra McPherson, from northern Madagascar, has small leaf blades (4–11 × 1–3.5 cm) with entire margins; A. longistipula McPherson, endemic to the Vohémar Region, has unusually long stipules (2–5[–7] mm); A. oblanceolata McPherson, from western and southwestern Madagascar, has small acuminate leaves with dentate margins; and A. stenophylla McPherson, from southwestern Madagascar, has small, unusually narrow leaves (5–13 × 0.5–1.7[–2] cm). Argomuellera decaryana (Leandri) J. Léonard is relegated to the synonymy of A. perrieri (Leandri) J. Léonard. A key to the 12 Argomuellera species of Madagascar and the Comoro Islands is presented.
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