Although the relative importance of land use and climate to large-scale bird distributions has received great attention, it is difficult to separate the effects of land use and climate, and there are few studies on bird abundance distributions on a large scale. Here, we examined the effects of land use and climate on the abundance of the nocturnal Jungle Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus in Hokkaido, northern Japan. We chose 125 sampling sites with low correlations (|r|<0.58) between land use and climate, and combined a playback method with a hierarchical model (N-mixture model). We thereby accounted for the possibility that we could not detect all individuals during the field survey. Results show that Jungle Nightjar abundance was greater at sites within a 4—km radius of moderate forest cover (∼75%) and with high average temperatures during the breeding season. Moreover, the effects of land-use were greater than those of climate. Mapping predictions of Jungle Nightjar abundance indicated that suitable areas are distributed in southern and central Hokkaido and around the margins of montane zones. Factoring in the covariation of land use and climate, land use may be the most important driver of the distribution of the Jungle Nightjar in Hokkaido.
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