Surveys were carried out for chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, in the areas of Ntakata (300 km2 between the Mkamba River and the Lubalisi River, 05°45′–06°15′S, 30°00′–30°15′E), and Kakungu (200 km2 between the Lubalisi River and the sources of the Rubufu River, 05°55′–06°15′S, 30°00′–30°15′E), Tanzania, during the dry seasons of 2001 and 2003. The predominant vegetation was savanna woodland with forest patches (mainly along watercourses and hillsides). Population information was obtained by sightings and sleeping-nest counts. In the Ntakata area, chimpanzees occur in Ntakata, Mlofwezi, Kapalagulu (05°52′S, 30°02′E), and Mpulumuka (5°58′S, 30°11 ′E) and in the Ntakata-Kapalagulu Hills (Fig. 1). No evidence was forthcoming for their existence in Ikubulu, Lunfampa, Kakundu, Kabufisa, and Kamafiga, nor the plains of north of Kapalagulu Hill and the entire Lugufu basin. In the Kakungu area, they occur at Kakungu itself (05°58′S, 30°03′E) and Kalobwa in the Kakungu-Kalobwa Hills. With evidently large home ranges, densities were found to be low in the 500-km2 area between the Ntakata-Kapalagulu Hills and Kakungu-Kalobwa Hills — everywhere less than 0.05(0.048) individuals/km2. Hunting (by immigrant farmers and refugees), besides habitat loss (logging, firewood, and clearing for agriculture) are believed be causing a steady decline of chimpanzee populations in the region.
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