The earthworm fauna of Plummers Island, Maryland, U.S.A. was surveyed, recording a total of 12 species belonging to the families Lumbricidae, Acanthodrilidae, Megascolecidae, and Sparganophilidae. In addition to the well known peregrine lumbricids and megascolecids the island harbors four North American endemic species: Eisenoides lonnbergi (Michaelsen, 1894) (Lumbricidae), Sparganophilus tamesis Benham, 1892 (Sparganophilidae), Diplocardia caroliniana Eisen, 1899, and furthermore, a new species, Diplocardia zicsii sp. nov. (Acanthodrilidae).
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