Originally described in 1902, Megamelanus bicolor Ball is an infrequently collected delphacid planthopper whose host plants have remained unknown. Nymphs and adults were collected on saltgrass, Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene (Poaceae), in the critically imperiled saline wetlands of eastern Nebraska, as well as in alkaline wetlands of western Nebraska. We suggest that the planthopper is a saltgrass specialist. In addition to the new state record of Nebraska, we give other new North American records based on examination of museum specimens: Louisiana, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming in the United States, and British Columbia in Canada. A diagnosis of M. bicolor and illustrations and photographs of the male terminalia are provided.
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