Based on a recent phylogenetic analysis, Toxotrypana Gerstaecker (1860) is here placed in synonymy with Anastrepha Schiner (1868). Although Toxotrypana is the senior name, Anastrepha is recognized as valid because of the much greater economic significance of its species. Changing the names of the many pest species of Anastrepha would cause major nomenclatural instability and confusion in the applied literature, therefore a proposal to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has been submitted to validate this usage. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Anastrepha australis (Blanchard 1960), new combination, Anastrepha curvicauda (Gerstaecker 1860), new combination, Anastrepha littoralis (Blanchard 1960), new combination, Anastrepha nigra (Blanchard 1960), new combination, Anastrepha picciola (Blanchard 1960), new combination, Anastrepha proseni (Blanchard 1960), new combination, Anastrepha recurcauda (Tigrero 1992), new combination (all transferred from Toxotrypana), and Anastrepha nigrina Norrbom, new name for Anastrepha nigra Norrbom and Korytkowski (2009). Some changes to the species group classification within Anastrepha are also discussed.
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