Asakawa, J., Nakamura, N., Katayama, H. and Cullings, H. M. Estimation of Mutation Induction Rates in AT-Rich Sequences Using a Genome Scanning Approach after X Irradiation of Mouse Spermatogonia. Radiat. Res. 168, 158–167 (2007).
We have previously used NotI as the marker enzyme (recognizing GCGGCCGC) in a genome scanning approach for detection of mutations induced in mouse spermatogonia and estimated the mutation induction rate as about 0.7 × 10−5 per locus per Gy. To see whether different parts of the genome have different sensitivities for mutation induction, we used AflII (recognizing CTTAAG) as the marker enzyme in the present study. After the screening of 1,120 spots in each mouse offspring, we found five mutations among 92,655 spots from the unirradiated paternal genome, five mutations among 218,411 spots from the unirradiated maternal genome, and 13 mutations among 92,789 spots from 5 Gy-exposed paternal genome. Among the 23 mutations, 11 involved mouse satellite DNA sequences (AT-rich), and the remaining 12 mutations also involved AT-rich but non-satellite sequences. Both types of sequences were found as multiple, similar-sequence blocks in the genome. Counting each member of cluster mutations separately and excluding results on one hypermutable spot, the spontaneous mutation rates were estimated as 3.2 (± 1.9) × 10−5 and 2.3 (± 1.0) × 10−5 per locus per generation in the male and female genomes, respectively, and the mutation induction rate as 1.1 (± 1.2) × 10−5 per locus per Gy. The induction rate would be reduced to 0.9 × 10−5 per locus per Gy if satellite sequence mutations were excluded from this analysis. The results indicate that mutation induction rates do not largely differ between GC-rich and AT-rich regions: 1 × 10−5 per locus per Gy or less, which is close to 1.08 × 10−5 per locus per Gy, the current estimate for the mean mutation induction rate in mice.