Hou, H., Khan, N., Grinberg, O. Y., Yu, H., Grinberg, S. A., Lu, S., Demidenko, E., Steffen, R. P. and Swartz, H. M. The Effects of Efaproxyn™ (Efaproxiral) on Subcutaneous RIF-1 Tumor Oxygenation and Enhancement of Radiotherapy-Mediated Inhibition of Tumor Growth in Mice. Radiat. Res. 168, 218–225 (2007).
Efaproxiral, an allosteric modifier of hemoglobin, reduces hemoglobin-oxygen binding affinity, facilitating oxygen release from hemoglobin, which is likely to increase tissue pO2. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of efaproxiral on tumor oxygenation and growth inhibition of RIF-1 tumors that received X radiation (4 Gy) plus oxygen breathing compared to radiation plus oxygen plus efaproxiral daily for 5 days. Two lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) deposits were implanted in RIF-1 tumors in C3H mice for tumor pO2 measurements using EPR oximetry. Efaproxiral significantly increased tumor oxygenation by 8.4 to 43.4 mmHg within 5 days, with maximum increases at 22–31 min after treatment. Oxygen breathing alone did not affect tumor pO2. Radiation plus oxygen plus efaproxiral produced tumor growth inhibition throughout the treatment duration, and inhibition was significantly different from radiation plus oxygen from day 3 to day 5. The results of this study provide unambiguous quantitative information on the effectiveness of efaproxiral to consistently and reproducibly increase tumor oxygenation over the course of 5 days of treatment, modeling the clinical use of efaproxiral. Also, based on the tumor growth inhibition, the study shows the efaproxiral-enhanced tumor oxygenation was radiobiologically significant. This is the first study to demonstrate the ability of efaproxiral to increase tumor oxygenation and to increase the tumor growth inhibition of radiotherapy over 5 days of treatment.