Smith, P. A., Kuster, N., Ebert, S. and Chevalier, H-J. GSM and DCS Wireless Communication Signals: Combined Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Study in the Wistar Rat. Radiat. Res. 168, 480–492 (2007).
A total of 1170 rats comprised of 65 male and 65 female Han Wistar rats per group were exposed for 2 h/day, 5 days/ week for up to 104 weeks to GSM or DCS wireless communication signals at three nominal SARs of 0.44, 1.33 and 4.0 W/kg. A preliminary study confirmed that the highest exposure level was below that which was capable of causing a measurable increase in the core temperature of the rat. Additional groups for each modulation were sham exposed, and there was also an unrestrained, unexposed (cage) control group. Fifteen male and 15 female rats per group were killed after 52 weeks. From the remaining 50 male and 50 female rats per group, surviving animals were killed after 104 weeks. Evaluations during the study included mortality rate, clinical signs, recording of palpable masses, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmoscopic examination, and clinical pathological investigations. Terminal investigations included organ weight measurement and macroscopic and microscopic pathology examinations. There was no adverse response to the wireless communication signals. In particular, there were no significant differences in the incidence of primary neoplasms, the number of rats with more than one primary neoplasm, the multiplicity and latency of neoplasms, the number of rats with metastases, and the number of benign and malignant neoplasms between the rats exposed to wireless communication signals and rats that were sham exposed.