Cassatt, D. R., Kaminski, J. M., Hatchett, R. J., DiCarlo, A. L., Benjamin, J. M. and Maidment, B. W. Medical Countermeasures against Nuclear Threats: Radionuclide Decorporation Agents. Radiat. Res. 170, 540–548 (2008).
Exposure to radionuclides disseminated by a radiological dispersion device or deposited as fallout after a nuclear power plant accident or detonation of an improvised nuclear device could result in internal contamination of a significant number of individuals. Internalized radionuclides may cause both acute and chronic radiation injury and increase an individual's risk of developing cancer. This damage and risk can be mitigated by the use of decorporation agents that reduce internal contamination. Unfortunately, most effective agents decorporate only a limited range of radionuclides, and some are formulated in ways that would make administration in mass casualty situations challenging. There is a need for new radionuclide decorporation agents, reformulations of existing agents, and/or expansion of the labeled indications for existing treatments. Researchers developing novel or improved decorporation agents should also understand the regulatory pathway for these products. This workshop, the first in nearly half a century to focus exclusively on radionuclide decorporation, brought together researchers and scientific administrators from academia, government and industry as well as senior regulatory affairs officers and U.S. Food and Drug Administration personnel. Meeting participants reviewed recent progress in the development of decorporation agents and contemplated the future of the field.