Since 1965, Amphisbaena leucocephala Peters, 1878 has been considered species inquirenda due to overlap in meristic data between it and A. pretrei and the the low number of specimens available for analysis. Herein, based on recently collected specimens, we review its taxonomic status through morphological and genetic data. Both analyses recovered A. leucocephala as a distinct species, sister to, but widely divergent from, A. pretrei. It is characterized by having 10–13 precloacal pores, 231–246 body annuli, 25–29 caudal annuli, autotomy site at the 6th–8th caudal annulus, 17–22 dorsal, and 20–23 ventral segments at midbody.
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