The main ectoparasites of small rodents at a Mayan community of Yucatán State, southeastern México were determined. Rodents were trapped in peridomestic areas of 20 houses from March to September 2016. Ectoparasites were removed from the rodents and morphologically identified. Total rodents infested were 22.9% (53/231). Prevalence of ectoparasites by rodent species was 65% (13/20) on Sigmodon toltecus Saussure, 50% (4/8) on Peromyscus yucatanicus J.A. Allen & Chapman, 37.5% (3/8) on Heteromys gaumeri J.A. Allen & Chapman, 25% (30/120) on Rattus rattus L., and 4% (3/75) on Mus musculus L. In total, 250 ectoparasites were collected. Mites were identified as Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese) (n = 115), Echinolaelaps echidninus (Berlese) (n = 89), and Steptolaelaps heteromys Furman (n = 22), and lice were identified as Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister) (n = 24). Results suggested association among particular ectoparasite and rodent species, i.e., P. spinulosa and E. echidninus with R. rattus. Likewise, S. heteromys was significantly associated with H. gaumeri, and A. fahrenholzi with S. toltecus. The presence of ectoparasites such as E. echidninus and P. spinulosa on peridomestic rodents indicated risk of pathogen transmission to humans in the study area; therefore, focusing on surveillance and control of rodents in household environments is imperative.
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