This study represents the outstanding revision of the Chilean C. integrifolia s.l. complex. In the monograph of the Chilean species of Calceolaria, some taxa of doubtful identity or unclear taxonomy but clearly closely allied to C. integrifolia s.str. were placed under the name C. integrifolia s.l. The taxa, all united by rugose leaves, well developed inflorescences, and overall very similar flower shape, seemed to comprise a close aggregation of innumerable different populations that were impossible to differentiate into well defined species. Extensive fieldwork and cultivation of more than 80 populations collected from almost the entire distribution area together with a broad selection of herbarium collections revealed characters for species delimitation. Main characters are well defined types of indumentum. In combination with other characters like habit and shape of leaves, the taxonomic revision of the C. integrifolia s.l. complex now recognizes nine species: C. andina, C. angustifolia, C. auriculata, C. georgiana, C. integrifolia s.str., C. rubiginosa (described here as a new species), C. talcana, C. verbascifolia and C. viscosissima. Every species has its own characteristic distribution pattern, which is correlated with ecological and climatic factors. Distribution maps as well as figures of main characters, a key to the taxa, synonymies, descriptions, and representative specimens are included.
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