In 2002, a monophyletic group previously unrecognized within Brassicaceae was identified through phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters in combination with data from three DNA sequences (Bailey et al.: Syst. Bot. 27: 318–332). As understood at that time, the halimolobine alliance (herein tribe Halimolobeae) comprised ca. 44 species from Halimolobos, Mancoa, Pennellia, and Sphaerocardamum. Within this group, a number of nomenclatural problems have remained unaddressed, including the polyphyly of both Halimolobos and Mancoa. With a developing understanding of Brassicaceae phylogeny, the Halimolobeae is robust in the context of higher level analyses and therefore in need of formal nomenclatural revision. The present study uses new and existing data in phylogenetic analyses based on trnL-F, ITS, and pistillata intron 1 data along with SEM studies of Synthlipsis elata and S. greggii to provide the bases for recircumscription of taxa assigned to the Halimolobeae. As recognized herein, the tribe includes five genera [Exhalimolobos, Halimolobos (including Synthlipsis elata), Mancoa, Pennellia, and Sphaerocardamum] and 39 species with two centers of distribution, one in north-central Mexico and the other in the Andes. A synopsis and keys to all taxa of the tribe are presented. Fifteen new combinations are proposed (E. arabioides, E. berlandieri, E. burkartii, E. hispidulus, E. palmeri, E. parryi, E. pazense, E. polyspermus, E. weddellii, H. elatus, H. henricksonii, H. pubens, H. stylosus, P. lechleri, and P. parvifolia).
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