A description and illustration of a new species of Licuala, L. hainanensis, from Hainan, China is given. This species, endemic to Hainan, was previously confused with the widespread L. spinosa. The distribution of the new species is mapped, and it is compared and contrasted to morphologically similar species from Vietnam. Evidence is presented that L. hainanensis is both dioecious and sexually dimorphic, based on its flower and rachilla morphology. Other potential cases of sexual dimorphism in Licuala are discussed.
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