Alcantarea pataxoana is described and illustrated. The new species is compared to Alcantarea burle-marxii, which we assume is the most morphologically similar species, as well as to A. nahoumii. The new species is the second taxon of this genus recorded for the flora of the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, and its differences from A. nahoumii are highlighted in an updated taxonomic key for that state.
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