Recent phylogenetic evidence suggests that Cynoglossum (Boraginaceae), a cosmopolitan genus, is not monophyletic, but relationships among members of the genus remain uncertain. This is particularly the case for North American species of Cynoglossum. Utilizing DNA sequence data, a phylogeny has been reconstructed to investigate the evolutionary relationships among the New and Old World species of Cynoglossum and other members of Boraginaceae. The resulting phylogeny resolved that North American species of Cynoglossum are members of a clade distinct from the Old World species, and these North American species belong to two distinct lineages. Cynoglossum occidentale and C. virginianum are sister species, and C. grande is a member of a separate group. Given these evolutionary relationships in conjunction with diagnostic morphological features, two new genera are proposed for these species, Andersonglossum and Adelinia, with four name transfers: Andersonglossum boreale, Andersonglossum occidentale, Andersonglossum virginianum, and Adelinia grande. Andersonglossum bears sessile cauline leaves, pedicels recurved in fruit, and pollen with two shapes of pores and no transverse groove. In contrast, Adelinia develops petiolate cauline leaves, pedicels erect in fruit, and pollen with only one pore shape and a transverse groove.
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