Ficus subg. Pharmacosycea sect. Pharmacosycea has never been comprehensively sampled in previous phylogenetic analyses of Ficus. The published phylogenies have focused mostly on the study of the whole genus, with a sampling of only a few taxa fromthis group. Our study represents the first molecular phylogenetic analysis focusing on this section, including 27 terminals representing 20 of its 35 species and 31 other species of Ficus. The analyses of three nuclear DNA sequences (ITS, G3pdh, and ETS) add considerably to our knowledge of the phylogenetic relationships within this peculiar section, and lead to proposed taxonomicmodifications. The monophyly of this section, aswell as its position as sister to the rest of Ficus, is supported by our maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. As previously circumscribed, F. subsect. Bergianae is monophyletic, and F. subsect. Petenenses is paraphyletic. A third well-supported clade is sister to the Petenenses-Bergianae clade, characterized by an hemiepiphyc life form. We describe this new subsection here as Ficus subsect. Carautaea.
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Vol. 40 • No. 2