We describe and illustrate the new mimosoid legume Inga bifoliolata (Leguminosae) from the highly endangered Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. The new species is morphologically unique among all Atlantic Forest-inhabiting taxa because of the leaves consistently bearing only two leaflets. Only a few Amazonian Inga species are known to have bifoliolate leaves, yet they are clearly distinct from the new species described herein, which is further characterized by an unwinged leaf petiole and spicate inflorescences on which the sessile flowers are laxly arranged and have puberulous corollas.
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