Information regarding conservation actions and species distribution are based on specimens collected and deposited in scientific collections and taxonomic studies. In the tropics, these data might be biased for several reasons. Even in well-explored regions, such as the Atlantic Forest, there is still a lot to learn regarding distribution and evolution of genera and species. Intense sampling effort during the last 15 yr in the central Atlantic Forest has led to the description of six new species of Bertolonia (Melastomataceae). Bertolonia angustipetala, B. cuspidata, B. linearifolia, B. reginatoi, and B. vitoriana are endemic to southern Bahia, and B. kollmannii also occurs in Minas Gerais, near the border between both states. These and other recent discoveries in Bertolonia shift the diversity center of the genus from the southern to the central region of the Atlantic Forest, and provide a new context to understand morphological and biogeographical variation within the genus.
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Vol. 43 • No. 3