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13 September 2019 Phytoseiid mites of the subgenus Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) De Leon (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) in Taiwan
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Abstract

Predatory mites belonging to family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) have received great attention. The subgenus Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) De Leon is one of the largest and complicated group in the family Phytoseiidae. There are 11 species of Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) reported in Taiwan so far and eight of them described by Y.H. Tseng. In addition, all specimens including types are lost after his retirement. The undetailed descriptions and the simple illustrations caused some difficulties in proper identifications of Taiwanese species. In this study, six species previously described from Taiwan that follows T. (A.) changi, T. (A.) gracilentus, T. (A.) lanyuensis, and T. (A.) neocrassus, T. (A.) obesus, T. (A.) tridentiger, are re-discovered. In addition, three species, T. (A.) bambusae, T. (A.) chinensis, and T. (A.) serrulatus are reported for the first time for Taiwanese fauna. We also provided the first description of male T. (A.) bambusae. Detailed descriptions of all species and a revised key to the Taiwanese species of the subgenus Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) are also included.

Introduction

Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) have received considerable attention due to their potential as biological control agents of phytophagous mites and other small arthropods (McMurtry et al. 2013, 2015). Thus far, more than 2,700 species included in three subfamilies and 91 genera have been recorded worldwide (Chant & McMurtry 2007; Demite et al. 2019). Yi-Hsiung Tseng provided the most complete survey of phytoseiid mites from Taiwan in the past, and described 20 species for science (Tseng 1972, 1973, 1975, 1976; Chang & Tseng 1978; Tseng 1983). However, after his retirement, all specimens including the type specimens were lost. In addition, Tseng provided undetailed descriptions and simple illustrations which may cause difficulties for proper identification. Therefore, redescriptions of these species are necessary to avoid further confusions (BAPHIQ 2009; Liao et al. 2017a).

The subgenus Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) De Leon is characterized by having dorsal setae S5 (Chant & McMurtry 1994, 2007). This subgenus is one of the most largest and complicated groups in the family Phytoseiidae. Totally 363 valid species of Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) are known worldwide (Demite et al. 2019). However, only 10 species were recorded from Taiwan, and nine of them described by Tseng (Tseng 1972, 1973, 1975, 1976; Chang & Tseng 1978; Tseng 1983).

During the nationalwide surveys to determine native populations of phytoseiid mites, six Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) species described by Tseng were found. In addition, three species are found for the first time in Taiwan. A revised key to Taiwanese species of subgenus Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) were also provided.

Materials and Methods

Mite specimens examined in this study were collected from various plants from the main island and surrounding islands of Taiwan during the years 1985–2018. Specimens were mounted in Hoyer's medium. Also, poor condition specimens were soaked with water, clean by lactic acid, bleached by high concentration (50%) H2O2 in the blacken specimen, rinsed in ethanol (75%), and remounted in Hoyer's medium (Yeh et al. 2008). Specimens were examined under Olympus BX51 microscope, and measurements taken using a stage-calibrated ocular micrometers as well as ImageJ 1.47 (Schneider et al. 2012). Photos were taken by using Motic® Moticam 5+ camera attached to the microscope. All measurements were provided in micrometers (µm) following by their mean and range (in parenthesis). The dorsal shield lengths were measured from anterior to posterior margins along the midline and the widths measured at j6 and S4 levels. The sternal shield lengths and widths were taken from anterior to posterior margins along the midline and at broadest level, respectively. The genital shield widths were taken from broadest level. The ventrianal shield lengths were taken from anterior to posterior margins along the midline including cribrum and the shield widths measured at ZV2 and anus levels. The general terminology used for morphological descriptions in this study follows that of Chant & McMurtry (2007). The notation for idiosomal setae follows that of Lindquist & Evans (1965) and Lindquist (1994), as adapted by Rowell et al. (1978) and Chant & Yoshida-Shaul (1992). The notation for solenostomes and lyrifissures is based on Athias-Henriot (1975).

Specimens were deposited in the following institutions: NCHU (Department of Entomology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan); NMNS (National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan), NTU (Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan), TARL (Taiwan Acari Research Laboratory, Taichung City, Taiwan). Other specimens were received on loan from acarological collections of HUM (Hokkaido University Museum, Sapporo, Japan), NSMT (National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Japan). If necessary, the locality names were translated using the Geographic Name Information System, Department of Land Administration, Ministry of the Interior (Taiwan) ( http://gn.moi.gov.tw/geonames/Translation/Translation.aspx).

Result

Family Phytoseiidae Berlese
Subfamily Typhlodrominae Wainstein
Genus Typhlodromus Scheuten
Subgenus Anthoseius De Leon

  • Key to Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) species known from Taiwan based on adult females1

    1. Ventrianal shield with three pairs of preanal setae 2

    –Ventrianal shiled with four pairs of preanal setae 3

    2. Dorsal setae serrated transvaalensis (Nesbiit, 1951)

    –Dorsal setae smooth bambusae Ehara, 1964

    3. Preanal pores absent 4

    –Preanal pores present 5

    4. Sternal shield with two pairs of setae neocrassus Tseng, 1983

    –Sternal shield with three pairs of setae changi Tseng, 1975

    5. Ventrianal shield with small rounded preanal pores ryukyuensis Ehara, 1967

    –Ventrianal shield with crescentic preanal pores 6

    6. Sternal shield with two pairs of setae obesus Tseng, 1983

    –Sternal shield with three pairs of setae 7

    7. Movable digit of chelicera with one tooth 8

    –Movable digit of chelicera with more than one tooth 9

    8. Fixed digit of chelicera with one tooth lanyuensis Tseng, 1975

    –Fixed digit of chelicera with four teeth gracilentus Tseng, 1975

    9. All setae setiform chinensis Ehara & Lee, 1971

    –At least seta Z5 shovel-shaped with expanded blade 10

    10. Fixed digit of chelicera with seven teeth serrulatus Ehara, 1972

    –Fixed digit of chelicera with about 3-4 teeth 11

    11. Both dorsal setae Z4 and Z5 shovel-shaped end with expanded blade crossostephium Liao & Ho, 2017b

    –Only dorsal setae Z4 shovel-shaped end tridentiger Tseng, 1975

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) bambusae Ehara, 1964
    (Figures 115)

  • Typhlodromus (Neoseiulus) bambusae Ehara, 1964: 379.

  • Amblydromella bambusae.—Moraes et al., 1986: 156.

  • Typhlodromus bambusae.—Yin et al. 1996: 59.

  • Amblydromella (Lindquistoseia) bambusae.—Denmark & Welbourn, 2002: 301.

  • Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) takahashii Ehara, 1978.—(synonymy according to Ehara, 1981)

  • Female (n=7)

  • A lightly sclerotized mite. Idiosomal setal pattern: 12A:8A/JV-3:ZV.

  • Dorsal idiosoma (Figure 1). Dorsal shield nearly oval, constricted at level of R1, strongly reticulated; 348 (313–377) long and 183 (159–200) wide at level of j6, 184 (162–192) wide at level of S4; five pairs of solenostomes on dorsal shield (gd2, gd4, gd6, gd8, gd9), 15 pairs of lyrifissures (id1, id1a, id2, id4, id6, idm2, idm3, idm4, idm5, idm6, idx, is1, idl2, idl3, idl4); length of setae: j1 22 (19–24), j3 42 (39–47), j4 30 (27–32), j5 35 (31–39), j6 48 (39–56), J2 59 (53–65), J5 10 (5–14), z2 22 (17–34), z3 30 (27–34), z4 32 (28–36), z5 20 (16–24), Z4 70 (61–78), Z5 65 (60–68), s4 42 (37–47), s6 49 (40–54), S2 49 (44–53), S4 35 (32–39), S5 31 (22–37), r3 20 (17–22), R1 22 (19–25). All setae smooth, except seta Z5 serrated.

  • Peritreme (Figures 1, 2). Peritreme extending to level of z2; peritremal shield lightly sclerotized, with one pair of solenostomes (gd3), and one pair of lyrifissures (id3).

  • Ventral idiosoma (Figure 2). Sternal shield smooth, posterior margin concave, much wider than long, 46 (41–58) long, 76 (65–94) wide, with two pairs of setae st1 27 (22–33), st2 24 (19–30), and two pairs of lyrifissures (pst1, pst2); setae st3 19 (16–23) on soft cuticle. Exopodal shield at coxae II-IV. Metasternal platelets tear-shaped, with one pair of metasternal setae, st4 17 (15–19), and one pair of lyrifissures (pst3). Genital shield smooth, with one pair of genital setae st5 22 (17–26), 72 (67–77) wide at level of genital setae. Distances between st1-st1 48 (41–52), st2-st2 58 (49–62), st3-st3 77 (57–84), st1-st3 61 (50–69), st5-st5 62 (58–66). Ventrianal shield pentagonal, smooth, 132 (116–142) long, 115 (107–125) wide at level of ZV2, 65 (59–73) wide at level of anus; with three pairs of preanal setae, JV1 18 (14–23), JV2 19 (17–23), ZV2 16 (13–21), solenostomes gv3 small, rounded; Pa 16 (13–21), Pst 13 (12–14) on shield. Setae JV4 12 (8–16), JV5 36 (33–39), ZV1 16 (12–21), ZV3 13 (12–14) on interscutal membrane. All setae smooth. Two pairs of metapodal plates: 31 (24–36) long, 6 (4–7) wide; 9 (7–11) long, 3 (2–4) wide.

  • Spermatheca (Figure 4). Calyx elongated saccular, flaring distally, 33 (29–39) long, 11 (7–14) wide; atrium incorporate with calyx, minor and major ducts visible.

  • Chelicera (Figure 3). Movable digit 30 (29–32) long, with three teeth; fixed digit 27 (24–31) long, with eight teeth, with pilus dentilis.

  • Legs (Figures 5–8). Complement of setae on coxae I-IV: 2-2-2-1. Chaetotaxy (femur to basitarsus): leg I 2-3/1-2/2-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 1-1/1-1; leg II 2-3/1-2/1-1, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/ 1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg III 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg IV 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/0-2/1-1, 1-1/0-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1. Macrosetae: Sti IV (ad) 24 (22–26), St IV (d) 31 (28–33). Macrosetae setiform.

  • Male (n=1)

  • A lightly sclerotized mite. Idiosomal setal pattern: 12A:8A/JV-3,4:ZV-1,3.

  • Dorsal idiosoma (Figure 9). Dorsal shield nearly oval, constricted at level of R1, strongly reticulated; 255 long and 157 wide at level of j6, 132 wide at level of S4, five pairs of solenostomes on dorsal shield (gd2, gd4, gd6, gd8,gd9), 15 pairs of lyrifissures (id1, id1a, id2, id4, id6, idm2, idm3, idm4, idm5, idm6, idx, is1, idl2, idl3, idl4); length of setae: j1 15, j3 23, j4 18, j5 17, j6 19, J2 19, J5 7, z2 15, z3 16, z4 17, z5 14, Z4 28, Z5 42, s4 23, s6 30, S2 22, S4 17, S5 18, r3 14, R1 12. All setae smooth, except seta Z5 serrated.

  • Peritreme (Figures 9, 10). Peritreme extending to level of z2–z3; peritremal shield lightly sclerotized, with one pair of solenostomes (gd3) and one pair of lyrifissures (id3).

  • Ventral idiosoma (Figure 10). Sternogenital shield smooth, posterior margin almost straight, longer than wide,108 long, 61 wide at level of st5, with five pairs of setae, st1 19, st2 18, st3 15, st4 16, st5 19, three pairs of lyrifissures (pst1, pst2, pst3). Distances between st1-st1 46, st2-st2 50, st3-st3 52, st4-st4 42, st5-st5 34, st1-st5 99. Exopodal shield at coxae II–IV. Ventrianal shield subtriangular, reticulated, 108 long, 133 wide at anterior corner, 51 at level of anus, fused with peritremal shield cingulum; with three pairs of preanal setae, JV1 17, JV2 15, ZV2 14, solenostomes gv3 small, rounded; Pa 9, Pst 11 on shield. Seta JV5 19 on interscutul membrane. All setae smooth.

  • Chelicera (Figure 11). Movable digit 18 long, with one tooth; fixed digit 16 long, with six teeth, with pilus dentilis. Spermatodactyl L-shaped, shaft 11 long, heel reduced, foot 5 long.

  • Legs (Figures 12–15). Complement of setae on coxae I–IV: 2-2-2-1. Chaetotaxy (femur to basitarsus): leg I, 2-3/1-2/2-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 1-1/1-1; leg II, 2-3/1-2/1-1, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/ 1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg III, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg IV, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/0-2/ 1-1, 1-1/0-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1. Macrosetae: Sti IV (ad) 19, St IV (d) 21. Macrosetae setiform.

  • Specimens examined

  • JAPAN: Tottori, Tottori Pref., holotype female (ZIHU-3410) from Chimonobambusa marmorea (Poaceae), 4 July 1964, T. Godo (HUM); near Sugadaira, Nagano Pref., two paratype females (ZIHU3410–1, 2) from Sasa sp. (Poaceae), 3 Aug 1964, S. Ehara (HUM); Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji City, Tokyo, three females from Sasa sp. (Poaceae), 2 Dec 2018, J. R. Liao & H. C. Liao (NTU).

  • TAIWAN: Chung Cheng Camp Zone, Dakeng, Beitun District, Taichung City, one female (TAL092G118) from Bambusa stenostachya (Poaceae), 23 Feb 2003, C. C. Ho (TARL); Zhutian Township, Pingtung County, one female (TAL092D0078) from soil of Zea mays (Poaceae), 21 Apr 2003, C. C. Ho (TARL); Lidong Rd., Neipu Township, Pingtung County, one female (TAL092D1007) from soil of Areca cathecha (Palmse), 23 Apr 2003, C. C. Ho (TARL); Daguan, Heping Dist., Taichung City, one female (TAL093B748) from soil, 23 Mar 2004, C. C. Ho (TARL); Qingshan, Dongshan Dist., Tainan City, two females (HAL096C024) from Miscanthus floridulus (Poaceae), 30 Jan 2007, C. C. Ho (TARL); Aonao, Tai'an Township, Taichung City (24° 23′ 25.5″ N, 121° 57′ 31.4″ E, 887m), three females (HAL101B133, 34, 35) from bamboo (Poaceae), 23 Mar 2012, C. C. Ho (TARL); Datunshan, Beitou Dist., Taipei City (25° 09′ 40.1″ N, 121° 29′ 36″ E, 470m), six females and one male (HAL101B299, 300, 301, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311) from bamboo (Poaceae), 9 Nov 2012, C. C. Ho (TARL); Zhanghu Mountain, Gukeng Township, Yunlin County (23° 36′ 58.9″ N, 120° 37′ 54.3″ E, 739m), eight females and one male (HAL102B08–14) from Phyllostachys makinoi (Poaceae), 23 Jan 2013, C. C. Ho (TARL); Guanziling, Baihe Dist., Tainan County (23° 20′ 0.8″ N, 120° 29′ 45.3″ E, 382m), one female (HAL102B10160) from Phyllostachys makinoi (Poaceae), 6 Nov 2013, C. C. Ho (TARL).

  • Distribution

  • Asia: China [Fujian (Lin et al. 2000), Zhejiang (Yin et al. 1996)], Japan (Ehara 1964), Taiwan (present study).

  • Remarks

  • Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) bambusae Ehara is reported for the first time for Taiwanese fauna. Also, this is the first description of the male of the species. Ehara (1964) described this species from Chimonobambusa marmorea and sasa bamboo in Japan. Zhang et al. (1999) reported this species as an effective biological control agent of spider mites belonging to the genus Schizotetranychus in China. According to McMurtry et al. (2013) this species has subtype I-b lifestyle and specialized predators of web-nest producing mites. We also observed the species when its feeding on the similar circumstance.

  • According to the original description of the species, “macrosetae of leg IV: tibia 49, basitarsus 54; largest seta on tibia IV 33”. Ehara (1981) mentioned that the orginal description was erroneously recorded. He then corrected macrosetae as follows, “macroseta on tibia 26, that on basitarsus 28, that on distitarsus 23, the largest seta on genu 17”. Our measurements taken from the holotype are agree with Ehara (1981).

  • FIGURE. 1–4.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) bambusae Ehara, 1964, female. 1. Dorsal shield; 2. Ventral idiosoma; 3. Chelicera; 4. Spermatheca.

    img-z4-1_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 5–8.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) bambusae Ehara, 1964, female, legs. 5. Leg I anterodorsal view; 6. Leg II dorsal view; 7. Leg III anterodorsal view; 8. Leg IV anterodorsal view.

    img-z5-2_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 9–11.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) bambusae Ehara, 1964, male. 9. Dorsal shield; 10. Ventral idiosoma; 11. Chelicera and spermatodactyl.

    img-z6-1_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 12–15.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) bambusae Ehara, 1964, male, legs. 12. Leg I anterodorsal view; 13. Leg II dorsal view; 14. Leg III dorsal view; 15. Leg IV dorsal view.

    img-z7-3_1653.jpg

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) neocrassus Tseng, 1983
    (Figures 1623)

  • Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) neocrassus Tseng, 1983: 67

  • Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) neocrassus.—Moraes et al., 2004: 339.

  • Female (n=1)

  • A lightly sclerotized mite. Idiosomal setal pattern: 12A:8A/JV:ZV.

  • Dorsal idiosoma (Figure 16). Dorsal shield nearly oval, constricted at level of R1, well sclerotized, strongly reticulated, 356 long and 208 wide at level of j6, 221 wide at level of S4; four pairs of solenostomes on dorsal shield (gd4, gd6, gd8, gd9), 12 pairs of lyrifissures (id1, id2, id4, idm2, idm3, idm4, idm5, idm6, is1, idl2, idl3, idl4); length of setae: j1 19, j3 20, j4 14, j5 16, j6 16, J2 21, J5 7, z2 15, z3 16, z4 17, z5 17, Z4 30, Z5 41, s4 19, s6 23, S2 23, S4 27, S5 26, r3 18, R1 19. All setae short, thick and serrated, sharp end, except setae Z4, Z5 shovel end.

  • Peritreme (Figures 16, 17). Peritreme extending beyond j1 and curved downward, with one pair of solenostome (gd3), and one pair of lyrifissures (id3).

  • Ventral idiosoma (Figure 17). Sternal shield smooth, posterior margin with median projection, much wider than long, 51 long, 88 wide, with two pairs of setae st1 18, st2 15, and two pairs of lyrifissures (pst1, pst2), st3 12 on soft cuticle. Exopodal shield at coxae I–IV. Metasternal platelets tear-shaped, with one pair of metasternal setae, st4 12. Genital shield smooth, posteriorly truncate, with one pair of genital setae st5 15, 72 wide at level of genital setae. Distances between st1–st1 49, st2–st2 66, st3–st3 75, st1–st3 72, st5–st5 62. Ventrianal shield pentagonal, longer than wide, 128 long, 115 wide at level of ZV2, 85 wide at level of anus; with four pairs of preanal setae, JV1 15, JV2 11, JV3 11, ZV2 11, solenostomes gv3 small, rounded; Pa 8, Pst 12 on shield. Setae JV4 11, JV5 34, ZV1 12, ZV3 8 on interscutal membrane. All setae smooth, JV5 thick, serrated, shovel end. Two pairs of metapodal plates: 22 long, 6 wide; 8 long, 2 wide.

  • Spermatheca (Figure 19). Calyx cup-shaped, 20 long, 20 wide; atrium nodular and attached to the calyx without neck, minor and major ducts visible.

  • Chelicera (Figure 18). Movable digit 32 long, with three teeth; fixed digit 28 long, with five teeth, and pilus dentilis.

  • Legs (Figures 20–23). Complement of setae on coxae I–IV: 2-2-2-1. Chaetotaxy (femur to basitarsus): leg I, 2-3/2-2/2-1, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 1-1/1-1; leg II, 2-3/1-2/1-1, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/ 1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg III, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg IV, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/ 0-1, 1-1/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-1. Macrosetae: Sge III (ad2) 12, Sti III (ad) 15, St III (d) 14, Sge IV (ad2) 12, Sti IV (ad) 14, St IV (d) 28. Macrosetae apically shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Specimens examined

  • Jiaoxi Township, Yilan County, one female (no. 1107–2) from Gardenia jasminoides (Rubiaceae), 27 Jan 2011, Y. T. Shih (NTU).

  • Distribution

  • Asia: Taiwan (Tseng 1983).

  • Remarks

  • Tseng (1983) reported this species from guajava (guava, Psidium guajava) in Taichung City. This species is characterized by having two pairs of setae on the sternal shield, all of the dorsal setae short, thick and serrated, and seta Z5 with a shovel end. Besides, Tseng (1983) provided the illustration of spermatheca as a concentric circle which does not show the real structure of spermatheca. We assumed that the concentric circle is probably an artefact caused by the slide-making technique.

  • FIGURE. 16–19.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) neocrassus Tseng, 1983, female. 16. Dorsal shield; 17. Ventral idiosoma; 18. Chelicera; 19. Spermatheca.

    img-z9-2_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 20–23.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) neocrassus Tseng, 1983, female, legs. 20. Leg I dorsal view, 21. Leg II dorsal view, 22. Leg III anterodorsal view, 23. Leg IV anterodorsal view.

    img-z10-2_1653.jpg

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) changi Tseng, 1975
    (Figures 2431)

  • Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) changi Tseng, 1975: 57.

  • Amblydromella changi.—Moraes et al., 1986: 159.

  • Amblydromella (Amblydromella) changi.—Denmark & Welbourn, 2002: 307.

  • Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) changi.—Chant & McMurtry, 2007: 152.

  • Female (n=6)

  • A lightly sclerotized mite. Idiosomal setal pattern: 12A:8A/JV:ZV.

  • Dorsal idiosoma (Figure 24). Dorsal shield nearly oval, constricted at level of R1, well sclerotized, strongly reticulated, 357 (344–366) long and 179 (171–230) wide at level of j6, 187 (183–193) wide at level of S4; six pairs of solenostomes on dorsal shield (gd1, gd2, gd4, gd6, gd8, gd9), 14 pairs of lyrifissures (id1, id1a, id2, id4, idm2, idm3, idm4, idm5, idm6, idx, is1, idl2, idl3, idl4); length of setae: j115 (11–20), j3 13 (12–15), j4 9 (6–12), j5 10 (9–12), j6 12 (11–14), J2 14 (12–17), J5 8 (7–10), z2 13 (11–15), z3 11 (9–14), z4 13 (12–14), z5 10 (9–12), Z4 17 (10–21), Z5 57 (53–61), s4 15 (14–16), s6 17 (15–20), S2 20 (16–22), S4 25 (21–30), S5 21(18–29), r3 13 (10–15), R1 14 (12–15). All setae smooth, except seta Z5 serrated, shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Peritreme (Figures 24, 25). Peritreme extending to level of j1, with one pair of solenostomes (gd3), and one pair of lyrifissures (id3). Ventral idiosoma (Figure 25). Sternal shield smooth, posterior margin irregular, wider than long, 77 (71–84) long, 81 (73–87) wide, with three pairs of setae st1 20 (15–24), st2 20 (15–24), st3 16 (14–19), and two pairs of lyrifissures (pst1, pst2). Exopodal shield at coxae I–IV. Metasternal platelets tear-shaped, with one pair of metasternal setae, st4 14 (10–19), with one pair of lyrifissures (pst3). Genital shield smooth, posteriorly truncate, with one pair of genital setae st5 15 (12–21), 67 (60–75) wide at level of genital setae. Distances between st1-st1 52 (42–65), st2-st2 57 (50–68), st3-st3 65 (62–71), st1–st3 70 (67–74), st5–st5 57 (54–62). Ventrianal shield pentagonal, lateral margins slightly concave, 127 (122–134) long, 99 (88–95) wide at level of ZV2, 79 (74–87) wide at level of anus; with four pairs of preanal setae, JV1 10 (7–11), JV2 8 (6–11), JV3 11 (9–15), ZV2 12 (8–14), solenostomes gv3 small, rounded; Pa 12 (8–16), Pst 12 (9–16) on shield. Setae JV4 14 (12–17), JV5 47 (41–51), ZV1 11 (10–12), ZV3 11 (8–12) on interscutal membrane. All setae smooth, sharp pointed, except seta JV5 shovel end. Two pairs of metapodal plates: 20 (19–23) long,7 (6–9) wide; 9 (7–11) long, 3 (2–4) wide.

  • Spermatheca (Figure 27). Calyx cup-shaped, 12 (8–14) long, 7 (6–8) wide; with distal half thick, other membrane, atrium nodular, connected to the calyx without neck, minor and major ducts visible.

  • Chelicera (Figure 26). Movable digit 31 (27–38) long, with three teeth; fixed digit 28 (26–32) long, with eight teeth and pilus dentilis. Legs (Figures 28–31). Complement of setae on coxae I–IV: 2-2-2-1. Chaetotaxy (femur to basitarsus): leg I, 2-3/2-2/2-1, 2-2/1-1/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 1-1/1-1; leg II, 2-3/1-2/1-1, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/ 1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg III, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg IV, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/ 0-1, 1-1/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-1. Macrosetae: Sge III (ad2) 14 (12–16), Sge IV (ad2) 21 (18–23), Sti IV (ad) 18 (15–21), St IV (d) 45 (42–49). Macrosetae shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Specimens examined

  • Shouka, Mudan Township, Pingtung County (22° 14.577′ N, 120° 50.650′ E, 555m), one female (no. 617–1) from Bambusa olhamii (Poaceae), 14 June 2010, J. R. Liao, Y. H. Chiang & A. K. Dubey (NTU); Simaxian, Tai'an Township, Miaoli County (24° 23.753′ N, 120° 55.520′ E, 513m), one female (no. 1660–3) from Arundo formosana (Poaceae), 2 May 2016, J. R. Liao (NTU); Guanziling, Baihe Dist., Tainan County (23° 20.035′ N, 120° 28.930′ E, 320m), one female (no. 1823–2–1) from Bambusa olhamii (Poaceae), 10 Aug 2016, J. R. Liao (NTU); Guanziling, Baihe Dist., Tainan County (23° 20.035′ N, 120° 28.930′ E, 320m), one female (no. 1832–1) from Phyllostachys makinoi (Poaceae), 10 Aug 2016, J. R. Liao (NTU); Guanziling, Baihe Dist., Tainan County (23° 19.330′ N, 120° 28.993′ E, 456m), one female (no. 1840–1) from Phyllostachys makinoi (Poaceae), 10 Aug 2016, J. R. Liao (NTU).

  • Distribution

  • Asia: Taiwan (Tseng 1975).

  • Remarks

  • Tseng (1975) described this species based on a single female specimen collected from Areca catechu (Arecaceae) in Neipu, Chiayi (now Neipu, Zhuqi Township, Chiayi County). Dorsal reticulation did not mentioned in the original description of the species. The reticulation on dorsal shield is a common character among Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) species (Papadoulis et al. 2009; Döker et al. 2017). In addition, according to the original description, there are five teeth on the fixed digit of the chelicera as oppose to eight teeth on the fixed digit of the specimens examined in this study.

  • FIGURE. 24–27.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) changi Tseng, 1975, female, 24. Dorsal shield; 25. Ventral idiosoma; 26. Chelicera; 27. Spermatheca.

    img-z12-1_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 28–31.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) changi Tseng, 1975, legs. 28. Leg I anterior view; 29. Leg II anterior view; 30. Leg III posterior view; 31. Leg IV posterodorsal view.

    img-z13-4_1653.jpg

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) obesus Tseng, 1983
    (Figures 3240)

  • Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) obesus Tseng, 1983: 64

  • Female (n=8)

  • A lightly sclerotized mite. Idiosomal setal pattern: 12A:8A/JV:ZV.

  • Dorsal idiosoma (Figure 32). Dorsal shield nearly oval, slightly constricted at level of R1, strongly reticulated; 348 (328–364) long and 181 (171–197) wide at level of j6, 181 (162–198) wide at level of S4; five pairs of solenostomes on dorsal shield (gd2, gd4, gd6, gd8, gd9), 11 pairs of lyrifissures (id1, id2, id4, idm2, idm3, idm4, idm5, idm6, idx, is1, idl2, idl3, idl4); length of setae: j1 19 (15–22), j3 15 (14–18), j4 11 (9–14), j5 11 (9–13), j6 13 (9–16), J2 13 (11–16), J5 9 (7–12), z2 14 (12–18), z3 14 (12–16), z4 15 (13–18), z5 11 (8–13), Z4 20 (16–23), Z5 37 (34–40), s4 17 (15–19), s6 19 (14–23), S2 23 (21–25), S4 24 (23–28), S5 16 (14–19), r3 17 (13–18), R1 13 (11–15). Setae j3, j4, j5, j6, J2, J5, z5 short, smooth, remaining setae thick and serrated, Z5 shovel-shaped apically with expanded blade.

  • Peritreme (Figures 32, 33). Peritreme extending to level of j1; peritremal shield lightly sclerotized, with one pair of solenostomes (gd3), and one pair of lyrifissures (id3).

  • Ventral idiosoma (Figure 33). Sternal shield smooth, posterior margin irregular, much wider than long, 54 (50–62) long, 78 (70–86) wide, with two pairs of setae st1 21 (18–25), st2 19 (17–20), and two pairs of lyrifissures (pst1, pst2), st3 17 (14–18) on soft cuticle. Exopodal shield at coxae II–IV. Metasternal platelets tear-shaped, with one pair of metasternal setae, st4 16 (12–21), with one pair of lyrifissures (pst3). Genital shield smooth, truncate posteriorly, with one pair of genital setae st5 17 (10–21), 64 (58–69) wide at level of genital setae. Distances between st1st1 47 (45–50), st2st2 56 (53–58), st3st3 67 (63–73), st1st3 69 (66–76), st5st5 54 (46–60). Ventrianal shield pentagonal, smooth, much longer than wide, with slightly waist at JV2 level, 125 (115–131) long, 92 (79–96) wide at level of ZV2, 82 (79–87) wide at level of anus; with four pairs of pre-anal setae, JV1 10 (9–11), JV2 8 (7–10), JV3 8 (7–9), ZV2 9 (6–11), solenostomes gv3 rounded; Pa 11 (8–15), Pst 13 (9–16) on shield. Setae JV4 11 (9–13), JV5 35 (31–39), ZV1 12 (8–15), ZV3 8 (7–10) on interscutal membrane. All setae smooth, sharp pointed. Two pairs of metapodal plates: 27 (24–29) long, 6 (5–8) wide; 13 (12–14) long, 3 (2–3) wide.

  • Spermatheca (Figure 35). Calyx bell-shaped, flaring distally, 19 (16–26) long, 14 (12–17) wide; small nodular atrium attached to the calyx without neck, minor and major ducts invisible.

  • Chelicera (Figure 34). Movable digit 29 (24–32) long, with one tooth; fixed digit 27 (24–28) long, with four teeth, with pilus dentilis.

  • Legs (Figures 36–39). Complement of setae on coxae I–IV: 2-2-2-1. Chaetotaxy (femur to basitarsus): leg I, 2-3/1-2/2-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 1-1/1-1; leg II, 2-3/1-2/1-1, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/ 1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg III, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg IV, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/ 0-1, 1-1/1-2/0-1, 1/1-1. Macrosetae: St IV (d) 24 (22–26). Macrosetae apically shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Specimens examined

  • Qiaotou Sugar Factory, Qiaotou Dist., Kaohsiung City (22°45′27.68″N, 120°18′50.8″E, 14m), one female (no. 9–13) from leaves on Tabebuia chrysantha (Bignoniaceae), 7 Aug 2009, H. T. Fang & Y. H. Chiang (NTU). Lintao Park, Penghu County, five females from Chloris barbata (Gramineae), 22 Apr 1989, C. C. Ho (NMNS); Liuqiu Isle, Liuqiu Township, Pingtung County, two females from unknown plant, 25 July 1989, C. C. Ho (TARL); Hsiao Liouciou Island, Liuqiu Township, Pingtung County, one females from Premna serratifolia (Verbenaceae), 25 July 1989, C. C. Ho (NMNS); Hsiao Liouciou Island, Liuqiu Township, Pingtung County, two females from unknown plant, 25 July 1989, C. C. Ho (TARL); Guan'ao, Jinsha Township, Kinmen County, one female (TAL091C280) from Sida rhombifolia (Malvaceae), 26 Oct 2002, C. C. Ho (TARL); Guan'ao, Jinsha Township, Kinmen County, one female (TAL091C283) from soil of Sida rhombifolia (Malvaceae), 26 Oct 2002, C. C. Ho (TARL); Sec. 2, Tianxiang St., Zhunan Township, Miaoli County (24° 42′ 418′ N, 120° 52.218′ E, 16m), two females (no. 901–1, 2) from Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), 13 Oct 2010, J. R. Liao (NMNS, NCHU).

  • Distribution

  • Asia: Taiwan (Tseng 1983).

  • Remarks

  • Tseng (1983) reported that this species has one tooth on movable digit and two teeth on fixed digit of the chelicera, and the present study indicated to presence of one tooth on movable digit but four teeth on fixed digit of the chelicera. Also, the original description of the species reported on the chaetotaxy of genu I-IV as 1-2/1-2/2-2, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-2/0-2/1-2, 1-2/1-2/1-1 but we found one less seta on each of the genua III (1-2/1-2/0-1) and IV (1-2/1-2/0-1). In addition, Tseng (1983) described the seta Z5 thick and serrated with sharp end, but we found the end of Z5 is shovel-shape with expanded blade. The circumstance is probably causing by different views of the setae (Figure 40).

  • FIGURE. 32–35.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) obesus Tseng, 1983, female. 32. Dorsal shield; 33. Ventral idiosoma; 34. Chelicera; 35. Spermatheca.

    img-AtYkQ_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 36–39.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) obesus Tseng, 1983, female, legs. 36. Leg I dorsal view; 37. Leg II dorsal view; 38. Leg III dorsal view; 39. Leg IV dorsal view.

    img-Ab3iu_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 40.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) obesus Tseng, 1983, seta Z5.

    f40.jpg

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) lanyuensis Tseng, 1975
    (Figures 4148)

  • Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) lanyuensis Tseng, 1975: 54.

  • Amblydromella lanyuensis.Moraes et al., 1986: 166.

  • Amblydromella (Amblydromella) lanyuensis.Denmark & Welbourn, 2002: 307.

  • Female (n=4)

  • A lightly sclerotized mite. Idiosomal setal pattern: 12A:8A/JV:ZV.

  • Dorsal idiosoma (Figure 41). Dorsal shield nearly oval, constricted at level of R1, laterally reticulated; 326 (313–345) long and 213 (202–230) wide at level of j6, 211 (200–218) wide at level of S4; five pairs of solenostomes on dorsal shield (gd2, gd4, gd6, gd8, gd9), 13 pairs of lyrifissures (id1, id2, id4, idm2, idm3, idm4, idm5, idm6, idx, is1, idl2, idl3, idl4); length of setae: j1 21 (19–23), j3 29 (27–32), j4 9 (8–9), j5 8 (7–10), j6 11 (10–12), J2 12 (11–13), J5 5 (5–6), z2 6 (6–8), z3 22 (20–24), z4 11 (9–14), z5 8 (7–10), Z4 36 (31–41), Z5 64 (62–67), s4 27 (26–29), s6 33 (31–36), S2 31 (28–34), S4 21 (19–24), S5 8 (6–11), r3 13 (10–15), R1 9 (7–11). All setae smooth, sharp end, except for Z5 slightly serrated.

  • Peritreme (Figures 41, 42). Peritreme extending to level of j1; peritremal shield lightly sclerotized, with one pair of solenostomes (gd3), and one pair of lyrifissures (id3).

  • Ventral idiosoma (Figure 42). Sternal shield smooth, posterior margin concave, much wider than long, 64 (61–65) long, 79 (78–81) wide, with three pairs of setae st1 15 (12–19), st2 14 (13–15), st3 15 (14–15), and two pairs of lyrifissures (pst1, pst2). Exopodal shield at coxae I–IV. Metasternal platelets tear-shaped, with one pair of metasternal setae, st4 11 (9–13), with one pair of lyrifissures (pst3). Genital shield smooth, truncate posteriorly, with one pair of genital setae st5 14 (13–16), 67 (64–69) wide at level of genital setae. Distances between st1-st1 50 (47–52), st2-st2 62 (61–64), st3-st3 65 (63–67), st1-st3 61 (58–64), st5-st5 59 (58–61). Ventrianal shield pentagonal with waist at JV2 level, smooth, 94 (89–97) long, 76 (73–78) wide at level of ZV2, 73 (71–74) wide at level of anus; with four pairs of pre-anal setae, JV1 9 (6–10), JV2 8 (8–10), JV3 8 (7–9), ZV2 8 (7–10), solenostomes gv3 crescentic; Pa 10 (8–11), Pst 11 (9–13) on shield. Setae JV4 7 (7–8), JV5 39 (38–41), ZV1 8 (7–9), ZV3 8 (7–10) on interscutal membrane. All setae smooth, sharp pointed. Two pairs of metapodal plates: 18 (17–22) long, 5 (5–5) wide; 10 (8–12) long, 2 (1–2) wide.

  • Spermatheca (Figure 44). Calyx tubular, flaring distally, with apical half thick, 14 (12–16) long, 5 (4–7) wide; atrium connected to the calyx, minor and major ducts invisible.

  • Chelicera (Figure 43). Movable digit 26 (25–28) long, with three teeth; fixed digit 25 (23–26) long, anterior half with three teeth, with pilus dentilis.

  • Legs (Figures 45–48). Complement of setae on coxae I–IV: 2-2-2-1. Chaetotaxy (femur to basitarsus): leg I, 2-3/2-2/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 1-1/1-1; leg II, 2-3/1-2/1-1, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/ 1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg III, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg IV, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/ 0-1, 1-1/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-1. Macrosetae: Sge III (ad2) 24 (21–28), Sti III (ad) 18 (17–21), St III (d) 14 (12–15), Sge IV (ad2) 40 (37–43), Sti IV (ad) 24 (21–27), St IV (d) 41 (40–41). Macrosetae shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Specimens examined

  • Lanyu Weather Station, Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 02.229′ N, 121° 33.503′ E, 308 m), one female (no. 1209–1, 2) from Acacia confusa (Fabaceae), 6 Apr 2011, Y. J. Lu (NCHU, NTU). Little Heavenly Lake, Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 04.650′ N, 121° 30.615′ E, 146 m), one female (no. 452–1) from Ficus septica (Moraceae), 4 Apr 2010, J. R. Liao & C. C. Ho (TARL). Little Heavenly Lake, Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 04.650′ N, 121° 30.615′ E, 146 m), one female (no. 453–11) from Leucosyke quadrinervia (Urticaceae), 4 Apr 2010, J. R. Liao & C. C. Ho (NMNS).

  • Distribution

  • Asia: Taiwan [(Lanyu Island (Tseng 1975)].

  • Remarks

  • This species was also described by Tseng (1975) from Lanyu Island based on the material collected from weeds. We also collected current material from the type locality. These specimens are morphologically similar to the original description of the species, except for a few differences. According to the original description of the species there is only one tooth on each cheliceral digits, but we found three teeth on each cheliceral digits. Additionally, macrosetae on leg IV are slightly longer than those of the original description (Sge IV 30 vs. 39, Sti IV 10 vs. 25, and St IV 32.5 vs. 41).

  • FIGURE. 41–44.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) lanyuensis Tseng, 1975, female. 41. Dorsal shield; 42. Ventral idiosoma; 43. Chelicera; 44. Spermatheca.

    img-z19-2_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 45–48.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) lanyuensis Tseng, 1975, female, legs. 45. Leg I posterior view; 46. Leg II posterior view; 47. Leg III posterior view; 48. Leg IV posterior view.

    img-z20-3_1653.jpg

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) gracilentus Tseng, 1975
    (Figures 4956)

  • Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) gracilentus Tseng, 1975: 61.

  • Amblydromella gracilenta.Moraes et al., 1986: 162.

  • Amblydromella (Amblydromella) gracilenta.Denmark & Welbourn, 2002: 307.

  • Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) gracilentus.Chant & McMurtry, 2007: 152.

  • Female (n=2)

  • A lightly sclerotized mite. Idiosomal setal pattern: 12A:8A/JV:ZV.

  • Dorsal idiosoma (Figure 49). Dorsal shield nearly oval, constricted at level of R1, well sclerotized, strongly reticulated, 314 (309–318) long and 188 (180–195) wide at level of j6, 180 (167–194) wide at level of S4; five pairs of solenostomes on dorsal shield (gd2, gd4, gd6, gd8, gd9), 12 pairs of lyrifissures (id1, id2, id4, idm2, idm3, idm4, idm5, idm6, is1, idl2, idl3, idl4); length of setae: j1 12 (11–13), j3 16 (15–17), j4 11 (10–12), j5 12 (11–14), j6 13 (11–14), J2 17 (14–20), J5 5 (5–6), z2 14 (12–17), z3 14 (10–17), z4 13 (12–14), z5 12 (11–13), Z4 23 (22–24), Z5 46 (43–50), s4 13 (11–15), s6 18 (15–22), S2 18 (14–22), S4 20 (18–23), S5 17 (17–17), r3 14 (14–15), R1 14 (12–15). All setae smooth, except seta Z5 serrated, shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Peritreme (Figures 49, 50). Peritreme extending beyond j1 and curved downward, with one pair of solenostomes (gd3), and one pair of lyrifissures (id3)

  • Ventral idiosoma (Figure 50). Sternal shield smooth, posterior margin irregular, much wider than long, 59 (55–62) long, 78 (77–80) wide, with three pairs of setae st1 17 (15–18), st2 13 (13–13), st3 15 (12–18), and two pairs of lyrifissures (pst1, pst2). Exopodal shield at coxae II–IV. Metasternal platelets tear-shaped, with one pair of metasternal setae, st4 13 (10–15). Genital shield smooth, much narrower than ventrianal shield, with one pair of genital setae st5 11 (10–13), 61 (59–63) wide at level of genital setae. Distances between st1-st1 49 (48–50), st2-st2 57 (55–58), st3-st3 64 (61–68), st1-st3 56 (54–58), st5-st5 60 (60–60). Ventrianal shield pentagonal, 97 (94–99) long, 93 (91–96) wide at level of ZV2, 79 wide at level of anus; with four pairs of pre-anal setae, JV1 12 (11–13), JV2 8, JV3 8 (7–8), ZV2 8 (6–10), solenostomes gv3 rounded; Pa 8, Pst 9 (8–10) on shield. Setae JV4 12 (9–15), JV5 32 (29–35), ZV1 8 (8–9), ZV3 7 on interscutal membrane. All setae smooth, sharp pointed, JV5 thick, shovel-shaped with expanded blade. Two pairs of metapodal plates: 15 (12–17) long, 5 (4–6) wide; 8 (6–9) long, 2 (2–3) wide.

  • Spermatheca (Figure 52). Calyx cup-shaped, 10 long, 9 (8–10) wide; with apical half thick, other membrane, atrium nodular, connected to the calyx without neck, minor and major ducts visible.

  • Chelicera (Figure 51). Movable digit 23 (22–25) long, with three teeth; fixed digit 22 (21–23) long, with four teeth, and pilus dentilis.

  • Legs (Figures 53–56). Complement of setae on coxae I-IV: 2-2-2-1. Chaetotaxy (femur to basitarsus): leg I, 2-3/2-2/2-1, 2-2/1-1/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 1-1/1-1; leg II, 2-3/1-2/1-1, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/ 1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg III, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg IV, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/ 0-1, 1-1/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-1. Macrosetae, Sge IV (ad2) 10, Sti IV (ad) 11, St IV (d) 23 (22–24). Macrosetae shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Specimens examined

  • Mt. Nanren, Manzhou Township, Pingtung County, one female (88-Ty-0007) from Lasianthus wallichii (Rubiaceae), 26 Nov 1988, C. C. Ho (TARL); Huisun Timberland, Ren'ai Township, Nantou County, one female (HAL102B140) from bamboo (Poaceae), 26 Oct 2013, C. C. Ho (TARL).

  • Distribution

  • Asia: Taiwan (Tseng 1983).

  • Remarks

  • Tseng (1975) described this species from Grevillea robusta (Proteaceae) in Yuch Shih Chieh, Kaohsiung (now Yueshijie, Tianliao Dist., Kaohsiung City). The type locality is a unique geographic area called “badlands”, which is filled with a desolate, barren beauty. The species is characterized by the wider and pentagonal ventrianal shield as well as relative length of leg IV macrosetae: St IV > Sti IV > Sge IV. Tseng (1975) described this species dorsal shield rugose, but did not draw it in the illustration. The present study found this species is strongly reticulated, but not rugose on dorsal shield. In addition, according to the original description of this species, there are one tooth on the movable digit and four teeth on the fixed digit of the chelicera, but our examination revealed that there are three teeth on the movable digit and four teeth on the fixed digit.

  • FIGURE. 49–52.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) gracilentus Tseng, 1975, female. 49. Dorsal shield; 50. Ventral idiosoma; 51. Chelicera; 52. Spermatheca.

    img-z22-2_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 53–56.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) gracilentus Tseng, 1975, female, legs. 53. Leg I anterior view; 54. Leg II dorsal view; 55. Leg III anterior view; 56. Leg IV anterior view.

    img-z23-1_1653.jpg

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) chinensis Ehara & Lee, 1971
    (Figures 5764)

  • Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) chinensis Ehara & Lee, 1971: 62

  • Amblydromella chinensis.Moraes et al., 1986: 159.

  • Typhlodromus chinensis.Wu et al., 1997c: 198.

  • Amblydromella (Amblydromella) chinensis.Denmark & Welbourn, 2002: 307.

  • Female (n=6)

  • A lightly sclerotized mite. Idiosomal setal pattern: 12A:8A/JV:ZV.

  • Dorsal idiosoma (Figure 57). Dorsal shield nearly oval, constricted at level of R1, strongly reticulated; 305 (292–319) long and 189 (179–207) wide at level of j6, 188 (179–197) wide at level of S4; six pairs of solenostomes on dorsal shield (gd1, gd2, gd4, gd6, gd8, gd9), 13 pairs of lyrifissures (id1, id2, id4, id6, idm2, idm3, idm4, idm5, idm6, is1, idl2, idl3, idl4); length of setae: j1 17 (14–21), j3 19 (17–23), j4 12 (9–15), j5 12 (6–14), j6 57 (12–18), J2 18 (14–20), J5 6 (3–7), z2 11 (9–15), z3 14 (11–18), z4 15 (12–19), z5 12 (10–16), Z4 28 (22–32), Z5 50 (43–55), s4 18 (15–22), s6 19 (17–21), S2 21 (18–25) [20], S4 18 (15–21), S5 16 (12–19), r3 15 (14–17), R1 15 (11–19). All setae smooth, sharp end, except seta Z5 serrated.

  • Peritreme (Figures 57–58). Peritreme extending to level of j1; peritremal shield lightly sclerotized, with one pair of solenostomes (gd3), and one pair of lyrifissures (id3).

  • Ventral idiosoma (Figure 58). Sternal shield smooth, posterior margin concave, wider than long, 56 (41–63) long, 76 (59–85) wide, with three pairs of setae st1 17 (15–24), st2 17 (12–21), st3 13 (12–14), and two pairs of lyrifissures (pst1, pst2). Exopodal shield at coxae II–IV. Metasternal platelets tear-shaped, with one pair of metasternal setae, st4 13 (10–17), with one pair of lyrifissures (pst3). Genital shield smooth, with one pair of genital setae st5 14 (11–18), 62 (45–69) wide at level of genital setae. Distances between st1-st1 49 (41–54), st2-st2 59 (44–67), st3-st3 64 (52–70), st1st3 56 (47–62), st5st5 59 (56–65). Ventrianal shield pentagonal, with waist at seta JV3 level, reticulated, 91 (70–101) long, 73 (65–76) wide at level of ZV2, 65 (61–71) [61] wide at level of anus; with four pairs of pre-anal setae, JV1 9 (7–11), JV2 9 (7–12), JV3 8 (5–9), ZV2 10 (9–14), solenostomes gv3 crescentic; Pa 9 (8–11), Pst 9 (7–14) [8] on shield. Setae JV4 9 (4–14), JV5 32 (28–38) [28], ZV1 9 (7–13) [12], ZV3 8 (6–9) [6] on interscutal membrane. All setae smooth. Two pairs of metapodal plates: 18 (15–21) long, 4 (3–5) wide; 7 (5–9) long, 2 (2–3) wide.

  • Spermatheca (Figure 60). Calyx cup-shaped, 9 (8–10) long, 6 (4–8) wide; with apical half thick, other membrane, atrium nodular, minor and major ducts visible.

  • Chelicera (Figure 59). Movable digit 22 (17–25) long, with three teeth; fixed digit 22 (17–24) long, with five teeth, with pilus dentilis.

  • Legs (Figures 61–64). Complement of setae on coxae I–IV: 2-2-2-1. Chaetotaxy (femur to basitarsus): leg I, 2-3/2-2/2-1, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 1-1/1-1; leg II, 2-3/1-2/1-1, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/ 1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg III, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg IV, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/ 0-1, 1-1/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-1. Macrosetae: Sge III (ad2) 21 (14–25), Sti III (ad) 18 (16–19), Sge IV (ad2) 32 (25–36), Sti IV (ad) 19 (14–22), St IV (d) 43 (39–49). Macrosetae shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Specimens examined

  • CHINA. Shek O, Hong Kong, holotype female (Ac-13075) from Bauhinia sp. (Fabaceae), 18 Oct 1970, S. Ehara (NSMT); Shek O, Hong Kong, two paratype females (ZIHU3554) from Bauhinia sp. (Fabaceae), 18 Oct 1970, S. Ehara (HUM).

  • TAIWAN. Dalu forest road, Wufeng Township, Hsinchu County (24° 32.460′ N, 121° 06.410′ E, 1228m), one female (no. 775–3, 4) from Callicarpa formosana (Lamiaceae), 13 Aug 2010, C. T. Chen & J. R. Liao (NTU); Dalu forest road, Wufeng Township, Hsinchu County (24° 32.460′ N, 121° 06.410′ E, 1228m), one female (no. 777–3, 4) from Morus sp. (Moraceae), 13 Aug 2010, C. T. Chen & J. R. Liao (NTU); Lijia forest road, Beinan Township, Taitung County (22° 48.306′ N, 121° 01.906′ E, 989m), one female (no. 1073–4) from Callicarpa formosana (Lamiaceae), 23 Jan 2011, J. R. Liao & J. F. Hsieh (NTU); Yulao, Jianshi Township, Hsinchu County (24° 39.920′ N, 121° 16.105′ E, 1199m), four females (no. 1263–2, 8, 10, 11) from Rubus sp. (Rosaceae), 17 Apr 2014, J. R. Liao (NTU); Yulao, Jianshi Township, Hsinchu County (24° 40.122′ N, 121° 16.512′ E, 1185m), one female (no. 1591–6) from Debregeasia orientalis (Urticaceae), 31 Dec 2015, J. R. Liao (NTU); Yulao, Jianshi Township, Hsinchu County (24° 39.932′ N, 121° 16.112′ E, 1216m), three females (no. 1621–4, 10, 12) from Debregeasia orientalis (Urticaceae), 4 Mar 2016, S. P. Kao (NTU); Longtan Dist., Taoyuan City (24° 52.113′ N, 121° 09.692′ E, 292m), one female (no. 1694–3) from Morus alba (Moraceae), 11 May 2016, J. R. Liao (NTU).

  • Distribution

  • Asia: China [Hong Kong (Ehara & Lee 1971)], South Korea (Ryu 1993), Taiwan (present study).

  • Remarks

  • Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) chinensis Ehara & Lee is reported for the first time for Taiwanese fauna. Ehara & Lee (1971) described this species from Bauhinia sp. and grass in Hong Kong. The present specimens mostly collected in mountainous area (altitude about 1000m). All morphological characters and measurements are similar to those of the original description of the species.

  • FIGURE. 57–60.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) chinensis Ehara & Lee, 1971, female. 57. Dorsal shield, 58. Ventral idiosoma, 59. Chelicera, 60. Spermatheca.

    img-z25-1_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 61–64.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) chinensis Ehara & Lee, 1971, female, legs. 61. Leg I dorsal view, 62. Leg II posterodorsal view, 63. Leg III posterior view, 64. Leg IV posterior view.

    img-z26-2_1653.jpg

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) serrulatus Ehara, 1972
    (Figures 6579)

  • Typhldromus (Anthoseius) serrulatus Ehara, 1972: 142.

  • Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) serrulatus.Chang & Tseng, 1978: 342.

  • Amblydromella serrulata.—Moraes et al., 1986: 175.

  • Amblydromella (Amblydromella) serrulata.—Dennmark & Welbourn, 2002: 307.

  • Female (n=9)

  • A lightly sclerotized mite. Idiosomal setal pattern: 12A:8A/JV:ZV.

  • Dorsal idiosoma (Figure 65). Dorsal shield nearly oval, constricted at level of R1, strongly reticulated; 301 (287–311) long and 173 (163–196) wide at level of j6, 175 (169–185) wide at level of S4; four pairs of solenostomes on dorsal shield (gd4, gd6, gd8, gd9), 14 pairs of lyrifissures (id1, id2, id4, id6, idm2, idm3, idm4, idm5, idm6, idx, is1, idl2, idl3, idl4); length of setae: j1 13 (10–16), j3 16 (14–18), j4 12 (9–15), j5 12 (9–14), j6 14 (11–17), J2 16 (13–18), J5 8 (4–9), z2 12 (10–14), z3 14 (12–18), z4 15 (10–17), z5 13 (11–15), Z4 23 (20–26), Z5 43 (40–45), s4 16 (15–19), s6 18 (14–23), S2 19 (16–25), S4 20 (17–24), S5 12 (9–13), r3 15 (11–17), R1 14 (12–15). All setae smooth, sharp end, except Z4 serrated, sharp end and Z5 serrated, shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Peritreme (Figures 65, 66). Peritreme extending beyond level of j1 and curved downward; peritremal shield lightly sclerotized, with one pair of solenostomes (gd3), and one pair of lyrifissures (id3).

  • Ventral idiosoma (Figure 66). Sternal shield smooth, posterior margin irregular, wider than long, 60 (52–66) long, 74 (67–77) wide, with three pairs of setae st1 15 (12–19), st2 13 (10–17), st3 14 (10–19), and two pairs of lyrifissures (pst1, pst2). Exopodal shield at coxae II–IV. Metasternal platelets tear-shaped, with one pair of metasternal setae, st4 13 (10–17), with one pair of lyrifissures (pst3). Genital shield smooth, with one pair of genital setae st5 17 (12–23), 60 (54–63) wide at level of genital setae. Distances between st1-st1 45 (41–55), st2-st2 55 (50–66), st3-st3 62 (55–67), st1-st3 55 (45–60), st5-st5 52 (49–56). Ventrianal shield pentagonal, with waist at seta JV3 level, smooth, 97 (92–108) long, 76 (74–80) wide at level of ZV2, 70 (66–71) wide at level of anus; with four pairs of pre-anal setae, JV1 9 (6–13), JV2 9 (7–11), JV3 8 (6–9), ZV2 8 (5–10), solenostomes gv3 small, rounded; Pa 9 (7–11), Pst 9 (8–10) on shield. Setae JV4 9 (7–12), JV5 26 (22–30), ZV1 9 (7–11), ZV3 6 8 (6–9) on interscutal membrane. All setae smooth, sharp pointed, JV5 shovel-shaped with expanded blade. Two pairs of metapodal plates: 20 (17–22) long, 5 (4–6) wide; 8 (6–11) long, 2 (2–3) wide.

  • Spermatheca (Figure 68). Calyx bell-shaped, 16 (14–18) long, 8 (6–10) wide; with distal half thicker, other membranous, atrium connected to the calyx, minor and major ducts visible.

  • Chelicera (Figure 67). Movable digit 24 (21–30) long, with three teeth; fixed digit 24 (21–30) long, anterior half with two teeth, posterior half with five teeth, and pilus dentilis.

  • Legs (Figures 69–72). Complement of setae on coxae I-IV: 2-2-2-1. Chaetotaxy (femur to basitarsus): leg I, 2-3/2-2/2-1, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 1-1/1-1; leg II, 2-3/1-2/1-1, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/ 1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg III, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg IV, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/ 0-1, 1-1/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-1. Macrosetae: Sge IV (ad2) 11 (9–13), Sti IV (ad) 13 (11–15), St IV (d) 26 (22–30). Macrosetae shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Male (n=2)

  • A lightly sclerotized mite. Idiosomal setal pattern: 12A:8A/JV-4:ZV-1,3.

  • Dorsal idiosoma (Figure 73). Dorsal shield nearly oval, constricted at level of R1, strongly reticulated, 237 (233–242) long and 151 (143–159) wide at level of j6, 126 (125–128) wide at level of S4, four pairs of solenostomes on dorsal shield (gd4, gd6, gd8, gd9), 14 pairs of lyrifissures (id1, id2, id4, id6, idm2, idm3, idm4, idm5, idm6, idx, is1, idl2, idl3, idl4); length of setae: j1 12 (11–13), j3 14 (14–14), j4 11 (10–13), j5 10 (8–11), j6 11 (9–12), J2 13 (12–13), J5 6 (5–7), z2 11, z3 12 (11–12), z4 11 (10–13), z5 10 (9–10), Z4 19 (18–19), Z5 31 (31–32), s4 16 (15–16), s6 16 (14–17), S2 15 (15–16), S4 14 (12–19), S5 10 (9–11), r3 13 (12–13), R1 11. All setae smooth, sharp end, except seta Z4 serrated, sharp end, seta Z5 serrated, shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Peritreme (Figures 73, 74). Peritreme extending to level of j1; peritremal shield lightly sclerotized.

  • Ventral idiosoma (Figure 74). Sternogenital shield smooth, lateral slightly reticulated, posterior margin concave, longer than wide, 107 (105–109) long, 62 (56–67) wide at level of st5, with five pairs of setae, st1 11 (9–13), st2 11 (10–13), st3 11, st4 12, st5 11 (10–11), three pairs of lyrifissures (pst1, pst2, pst3). Distances between st1–st1 41 (39–43), st2–st2 49 (48–51), st3–st3 52 (49–55), st4–st4 41 (38–44), st5–st5 32 (32–32), st1–st5 98 (97–99). Exopodal shield at coxae II–IV. Ventrianal shield subtriangular, slightly reticulated, 94 (93–96) long, 121 (120–122) wide at anterior corner, 58 (57–60) at level of anus, fused with peritremal shield cingulum; with four pairs of pre-anal setae, JV1 8 (7–8), JV2 7 (7–7), JV3 7 (6–9), ZV2 11 (9–13), solenostomes gv3 small, rounded; Pa 9 (8–9), Pst 9 (8–9) on shield. Seta JV5 14 (13–15) on interscutul membrane. All setae smooth, sharp pointed, except JV5 shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Chelicera (Figure 75). Movable digit 17 (15–18) long, with two teeth; fixed digit 18 (17–18) long, with four teeth, with pilus dentilis. Spermatodactyl L-shaped, shaft 16 (14–18) long, heel rounded, foot 11 (10–12) long, with expanded toe and lateral thorn-like projection.

  • Legs (Figures 76–79). Complement of setae on coxae I–IV: 2-2-2-1. Chaetotaxy (femur to basitarsus): leg I, 2-3/2-2/2-1, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 1-1/1-1; leg II, 2-3/1-2/1-1, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/ 1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg III, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg IV, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/ 0-1, 1-1/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-1. Macrosetae: Sge IV (ad2) 10 (8–12), Sti IV (ad) 11, St IV (d) 21 (20–22). Macrosetae shovel-shaped apically with expanded blade.

  • Specimens examined

  • JAPAN. Shiroyama, Tokushima City, Shikoku, holotype female (AC-13091) from Zelkova serrata (Ulmaceae), 26 Aug 1971, S. Ehara (NSMT); Shiroyama, Tokushima City, Shikoku, two paratype females (ZIHU3559, 3560) from Zelkova serrata (Ulmaceae), 26 Aug 1971, S. Ehara (HUM); Botanical Garden, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hookkaido, one paratype female (ZIHU3561) from Juglans mandshurica (Juglandaceae), 7 Sept 1967, S. Ehara (HUM).

  • TAIWAN. Luye Township, Taitung County, four females (89-Ty-0012, 13, 14, 16) from Hibiscus sp. (Malvaceae), 20 Feb 1989, Y. J. Wang (TARL); National Chung Hsing University, South Dist., Taichung City, one female from Gardenia jasminoides (Rubiaceae), 29 May 1997, C. C. Ho (TARL); National Chung Hsing University, South Dist., Taichung City, two females from Gardenia jasminoides (Rubiaceae) associated with Chrysomphalus aonidum, 22 Aug 1997, C. C. Ho (TARL); Wanfeng Village, Wufeng Dist., Taichung City, one female and two males (HAL099B696, 706, 712) from Acacia confusa (Fabaceae), 8 Aug 2010, C. C. Ho (TARL); Zhanggong N. Lane, Wufeng Dist., Taichung City, nine females and one male from Acacia confusa (Fabaceae), 14 May 2012, C. C. Ho (TARL); Zhanggong N. Lane, Wufeng Dist., Taichung City, two females and two males from leaf of Acacia confusa (Fabaceae), 30 May 2012, C. C. Ho (TARL); Nanhua Dist., Tainan City (23° 01′ 27.8″ N, 120° 27′ 54″ E, 123m), one female and one male (HAL101B212) from Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae), 24 July 2012 (TARL); Guanziling, Baihe Dist., Tainan County (23° 19.330′ N, 120° 28.993′ E, 451m), one female (no. 1841–1) from unknown plant, 10 Aug 2016, J. R. Liao (NTU); Guanziling, Baihe Dist., Tainan County (23° 20.336′ N, 120° 30.443′ E, 358m), three females and one male (no. 1843–1, 6, 8, 9) from Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), 10 Aug 2016, J. R. Liao (NTU).

  • Distribution

  • Asia: China [Fujian (Wu 1981), Wuling Mountain Region (Wu & Lan 1992a)], Japan (Ehara 1972), South Korea (Ryu & Lee 1992), Taiwan (present study), Thailand (Ehara & Bhandhufalck 1977).

  • Remarks

  • Ehara (1972) described this species from Zelkova serrata (Ulmaceae) in Japan. Chang & Tseng (1978) reported this species in Taiwan, but they provided some differences (e.g. dorsal shield slightly reticulated, seta S5 shorter). Tseng (1983) considered these specimens belonging to a different species and described them as T. (A.) pseudoserrulatus. However, these two characters are probably misidentified, because of the slide-making technique or other reasons. Besides, earlier specimens were lost after Tseng retirement (Liao et al. 2017a). There is no differences between our specimens and the holotype specimen. Therefore, this study proposed the existence of this species in Taiwan, and also considered that T. (A.) pseudoserrulatus is probably junior synonym of T. (A.) serrulatus.

  • FIGURE. 65–68.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) serrulatus Ehara, 1972, female. 65. Dorsal shield; 66. Ventral idiosoma; 67. Chelicera; 68. Spermatheca.

    img-z28-2_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 69–72.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) serrulatus Ehara, 1972, female, legs. 69. Leg I anteriodorsal view; 70. Leg II dorsal view; 71. Leg III anterior view; 72. Leg IV anterior view.

    img-z29-3_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 73–75.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) serrulatus Ehara, 1972, male. 73. Dorsal shield; 74. Ventral idiosoma; 75. Chelicera and spermatodactyl.

    img-z30-2_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 76–79.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) serrulatus Ehara, 1972, male, legs. 76. Leg I dorsal view, 77. Leg II dorsal view, 78. Leg III dorsal view, 79. Leg IV anterior view.

    img-z31-1_1653.jpg

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) tridentiger Tseng, 1975
    (Figures 8094)

  • Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) tridentiger Tseng, 1975: 64.

  • Amblydromella tridentiger.—Moraes et al., 1986: 177.

  • Amblydromella (Amblydromella) tridentiger.—Denmark & Welbourn, 2002: 307.

  • Female (n=10)

  • A lightly sclerotized mite. Idiosomal setal pattern: 12A:8A/JV:ZV.

  • Dorsal idiosoma (Figure 80). Dorsal shield nearly oval, constricted at level of R1, laterally reticulated; 324 (304–340) long and 202 (190–212) wide at level of j6, 195 (178–210) wide at level of S4; six pairs of solenostomes on dorsal shield (gd1, gd2, gd4, gd6, gd8,gd9), 12 pairs of lyrifissures (id1, id2, id4, idm2, idm3, idm4, idm5, idm6, is1, idl2, idl3, idl4); length of setae: j1 20 (13–23), j3 20 (18–23), j4 11 (9–14), j5 11 (9–13), j6 17 (15–20), J2 22 (17–24), J5 7 (5–9), z2 11 (9–14), z3 15 (11–18), z4 18 (16–19), z5 11 13 (10–16), Z4 30 (27–32), Z5 42 (39–49), s4 20 (15–23), s6 22 (21–25), S2 23 (22–25), S4 19 (17–23), S5 9 (7–10), r3 12 (9–15), R1 11 (8–16). All setae smooth, shovel-shaped apically except for S5, J5 short and normal, Z5 which are distinct shovel-shaped apically with expanded blade.

  • Peritreme (Figures 80, 81). Peritreme extending to level of j1; peritremal shield lightly sclerotized, with one pair of solenostomes (gd3), and one pair of lyrifissures (id3).

  • Ventral idiosoma (Figure 81). Sternal shield smooth, posterior margin concave, wider than long, 60 (52–65) long, 85 (82–89) wide, with three pairs of setae st1 19 (17–21), st2 15 (13–19), st3 16 (12–19), and two pairs of lyrifissures (pst1, pst2). Exopodal shield at coxae II–IV. Metasternal platelets tear-shaped, with one pair of metasternal setae, st4 16 (12–19), with one pair of lyrifissures (pst3). Genital shield smooth, truncate posteriorly, with one pair of genital setae st5 17 (13–20), 77 73 (65–79) wide at level of genital setae. Distances between st1–st1 48 (44–52), st2–st2 63 (60–66), st3–st3 72 (66–75), st1–st3 61 (58–64), st5–st5 60 (55–67). Ventrianal shield pentagonal, smooth, with slightly waist at JV2 level, 101 (93–112) long, 87 (76–94) wide at level of ZV2, 67 (64–72) wide at level of anus; with four pairs of pre-anal setae, JV1 12 (9–15), JV2 11 (9–15), JV3 10 (8–14), ZV2 11 (7–15), solenostomes gv3 crescentic; Pa 7 9 (7–11), Pst 9 (8–11) on shield. Setae JV4 8 (7–10), JV5 29 (27–32), ZV1 13 (9–18), ZV3 9 (7–12) on interscutal membrane. All setae smooth, sharp pointed, JV5 shovel-shaped. Two pairs of metapodal plates: 19 (17–21) long, 4 (3–6) wide; 8 (5–10) long, 2 (1–3) wide.

  • Spermatheca (Figure 83). Calyx bell-shaped, with apical half straight and thick, 17 (14–22) long, 8 (6–10) wide; atrium nodular and connected to the calyx without neck, minor and major ducts invisible.

  • Chelicera (Figure 82). Movable digit 26 (24–27) long, with three teeth; fixed digit 25 (23–29) long, with five teeth, with pilus dentilis.

  • Legs (Figures 84–87). Complement of setae on coxae I-IV: 2-2-2-1. Chaetotaxy (femur to basitarsus): leg I, 2-3/2-2/2-1, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 1-1/1-1; leg II, 2-3/1-2/1-1, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/ 1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg III, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg IV, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/ 0-1, 1-1/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-1. Macrosetae: Sge III (ad2) 14 (14–16), Sti III (ad) 11 (10–13), St III (d) 9 (7–10), Sge IV (ad2) 24 (22–26), Sti IV (ad) 13 (11–17), St IV (d) 23 (22–24). Macrosetae apically shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Male (n=2)

  • A lightly sclerotized mite. Idiosomal setal pattern: 13A:8B/JV-4: ZV-1, 3.

  • Dorsal idiosoma (Figure 88). Dorsal shield nearly oval, constricted at level of R1, with lateral reticulation; 228 (224–233) long and 156 (152–160) wide at level of j6, 131 (126–135) wide at level of S4, six pairs of solenostomes on dorsal shield, (gd1, gd2, gd4, gd6, gd8, gd9), twelve pairs of lyrifissures, (id1, id2, id4, idm2, idm3, idm4, idm5, idm6, is1, idl2, idl3, idl4); length of setae: j1 14 (13–15), j3 14 (13–14), j4 9 (8–9), j5 8 (8–9), j6 11 (8–14), J2 16 (14–17), J5 5 (4–5), z2 9 (8–10), z3 10 (9–10), z4 12 (11–12), z5 9 (9–9), Z4 20 (18–21), Z5 28 (28–28), s4 16 (15–16), s6 16 (14–18), S2 17 (17–17), S4 17 (16–18), S5 13 (13–13), r3 8 (8–9), R1 9 (8–10). All setae smooth, shovel-shaped apically except for S5, J5 short and normal, Z5 distinct shovel-shaped apically with expanded blade.

  • Peritreme (Figures 88–89). Peritreme extending to level of j1; peritremal shield lightly sclerotized.

  • Ventral idiosoma (Figure 89). Sternogenital shield smooth, lateral slightly reticulated, posterior margin straight, longer than wide, 107 (107–108) long, 61 (59–64) wide at level of st5, with five pairs of setae, st1 11 (10–13), st2 11, st3 11 (10–11), st4 13 (13–14), st5 13, three pairs of lyrifissures (pst1, pst2, pst3). Distances between st1–st1 38 (36–40), st2–st2 54 (53–56), st3–st3 56 (56–56), st4–st4 39 (39–40), st5–st5 35 (34–35), st1–st5 98 (95–101). Exopodal shield at coxae II–IV. Ventrianal shield subtriangular, with striation, 96 (95–96) long, 129 (126–132) wide at anterior corner, 50 (48–53) at level of anus, fused with peritremal shield cingulum; with four pairs of pre-anal setae, JV1 9 (8–9), JV2 8 (7–9), JV3 10 (8–11), ZV2 8, solenostomes gv3 crescentic; Pa 7 (6–9), Pst 7 (5–9) on shield. Seta JV5 15 (14–16) on interscutul membrane. All setae smooth, sharp pointed, JV5 shovel-shaped.

  • Chelicera (Figure 90). Movable digit 16 (15–18) long, with one tooth; fixed digit 16 (15–17) long, with three teeth, with pilus dentilis. Spermatodactyl L-shaped, shaft 16 (15–18) long, heel rounded, foot 8 (6–9) long, with expanded toe and lateral thorn-like projection.

  • Legs (Figures 91–94). Complement of setae on coxae I–IV: 2-2-2-1. Chaetotaxy (femur to basitarsus): leg I, 2-3/2-2/2-1, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 2-2/1-2/1-2, 1-1/1-1; leg II, 2-3/1-2/1-1, 2-2/0-2/0-1, 1-1/ 1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg III, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-2/1-1, 1-1/1-1; leg IV, 1-2/1-1/0-1, 1-2/1-2/ 0-1, 1-1/1-2/0-1, 1-1/1-1. Macrosetae: Sge III (ad2) 12 (10–13), Sti III (ad) 7 (7–8), St III (d) 6 (5–6), Sge IV (ad2) 16 (15–17), Sti IV (ad) 9 (8–10), St IV (d) 17 (16–18). Macrosetae apically shovel-shaped with expanded blade.

  • Specimens examined

  • Hongtou Water Plant, Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 02.042′ N, 121° 33.040′ E, 71 m), five females three males (no. 461–2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) from Macaranga sinensis (Euphorbiaceae), 4 Apr 2010, J. R. Liao & C. C. Ho (NTU); Lanyu Township, Taitung County, two females from Macaranga tanarius (Euphorbiaceae), 16 June 1987, C. C. Ho (TARL); Lanyu Township, Taitung County, one female two males from Morus alba (Moraceae), 16 June 1987, C. C. Ho (TARL); Ludao Township, Taitung County, one female (TAL078C0027) from Hibiscus tiliaceus (Malvaceae), 16 June 1987, C. C. Ho (TARL); Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 00.791′ N, 121° 34.034′ E, 25 m), one male (no. 425–7) from Macaranga tanarius (Euphorbiaceae), 2 Apr 2010, J. R. Liao & C. C. Ho (NTU); Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 04.513′ N, 121° 30.477′ E, 95 m), two females (no. 440–5, 6) from Mallotus japonicus (Euphorbiaceae), 3 Apr 2010, J. R. Liao & C. C. Ho (NTU); Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 04.788′ N, 121° 30.782′ E, 67 m), one female (no. 443–1) from Aglaia chittagonga (Meliaceae), 3 Apr 2010, J. R. Liao & C. C. Ho (NTU); Dongqing Water Plant, Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 03.549′ N, 121° 33.569′ E, 81 m), three females (no. 448–1, 2, 3) from Morus sp. (Moraceae), 3 Apr 2010, J. R. Liao & C. C. Ho (NTU); Lanyu Weather Station, Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 02.128′ N, 121° 33.552′ E, 308 m), six females (no. 450–1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) from Acacia confusa (Fabaceae), 3 Apr 2010, J. R. Liao & C. C. Ho (NTU); Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 00.881′ N, 121° 33.970′ E, 33 m), one female (no. 462–15) from Morus alba (Moraceae), 4 Apr 2010, J. R. Liao & C. C. Ho (NTU); Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 00.791′ N, 121° 34.034′ E, 26 m), one female (no. 463–19) from Trema orientalis (Cannabaceae), 4 Apr 2010, J. R. Liao & C. C. Ho (NTU); Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 00.791′ N, 121° 34.034′ E, 26 m), one female (no. 468–7) from Premna serratifolia (Verbenaceae), 4 Apr 2010, J. R. Liao & C. C. Ho (NMNS); Lanyu Township, Taitung County (22° 00.978′ N, 121° 33.830′ E, 19 m), one female (no. 1207–2) from Morus sp. (Moraceae), 6 Apr 2011, Y. J. Lu (NCHU).

  • Distribution

  • Asia: Taiwan [(Lanyu Island (Tseng 1975), Ludao (present study)].

  • Remarks

  • This species was described by Tseng (1975) from Lanyu Island on an unknown plant. Most specimens we collected were also found in the type locality and others found in neighboring islands Ludao. These specimens are morphologically similar to the original description of the species, however, two differences were observed: (1) Tseng (1975) reported as oppose to two macrosetae on genu IV and three macrosetae on tibia IV, but our observation indicated to presence of only one macrosetae on each of these segments; (2) we observed two additional teeth on proximal end of the fixed digt, well away from pilus dentilis in female specimens.

  • FIGURE. 80–83.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) tridentiger Tseng, 1975, female. 80. Dorsal shield; 81. Ventral idiosoma; 82. Chelicera; 83. Spermatheca.

    img-z34-2_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 84–87.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) tridentiger Tseng, 1975, female, legs. 84. Leg I dorsal view; 85. Leg II dorsal view; 86. Leg III dorsal view; 87. Leg IV anterior view.

    img-z35-2_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 88–90.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) tridentiger Tseng, 1975, male. 88. Dorsal shield; 89. Ventral idiosoma; 90. Chelicera and spermatodactyl.

    img-z36-2_1653.jpg

    FIGURE. 91–94.

    Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) tridentiger Tseng, 1975, male, legs. 91. Leg I posterior view; 92. Leg II dorsal view; 93. Leg III dorsal view; 94. Leg IV dorsal view.

    img-z37-2_1653.jpg

    Acknowledgements

    We thank to Y. T. Hsu (TTDARES, Taiwan) for cooperation in Lanyu Island collection, to İ. Döker (CU, Turkey), S. F. Lin (NCHU, Taiwan), X. D. Fang (GIABR, China), M. Ma (SXAU, China), Y. Hsiao (CSIRO & ANU, Australia) for suggestions. Thank to H. Ohara and H. Kajihara (HUM, Japan) for lending specimen of phytoseiids, and H. Ono (NSMT, Japan) for lending specimens and arrangement of visiting NSMT for first author. Thanks to K. Eguchi, H. C. Liao (TMU, Japan), S. Hiruka (NSMT, Japan) and S. Shimano (HU, Japan) for arrangement of visiting TMU for first author. Thanks to Wallace Academic Editing for English editing of the draft. The study is supported by grants (MOST105-2621-B-002-002-MY3) and (MOST108-2621-B-002-005-MY3) from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan.

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    Notes

    [1] 1. Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) eleglidus Tseng was not treated in the key due to simple original description. Besides, Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) pseudoserrulatus was also excluded in the key beccause of uncertained species status.

    © Systematic & Applied Acarology Society
    Jhih-Rong Liao, Chyi-Chen Ho, and Chiun-Cheng Ko "Phytoseiid mites of the subgenus Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) De Leon (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) in Taiwan," Systematic and Applied Acarology 24(9), 1653-1692, (13 September 2019). https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.24.9.6
    Received: 20 June 2019; Accepted: 21 August 2019; Published: 13 September 2019
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