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1 January 1998 Bird Flight Characteristics Near Wind Turbines in Minnesota
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Abstract

During 1994–1995, we saw 70 species of birds on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area. In both years bird abundance peaked in spring. Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) were the species most commonly seen. Most birds (82–84%) flew above or below the height range of wind turbine blades (22–55 m). The Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area poses little threat to resident or migrating birds at its current operating level.

Robert G. Osborn, Charles D. Dieter, Kenneth F. Higgins, and Robert E. Usgaard "Bird Flight Characteristics Near Wind Turbines in Minnesota," The American Midland Naturalist 139(1), 29-38, (1 January 1998). https://doi.org/10.1674/0003-0031(1998)139[0029:BFCNWT]2.0.CO;2
Received: 2 January 1997; Accepted: 1 August 1997; Published: 1 January 1998
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