Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) are widespread in U.S. eastern deciduous forests, yet many populations are experiencing dramatic declines. Herein, we present an assessment of annual survival for adult eastern box turtles that were radio-tracked over a period of 2 y. Using a known fates Kaplan-Meier estimator, the baseline annual survival estimate for adult eastern box turtles in Indiana's south-central region is 96.2%. Annual survival rates varied slightly between the hibernal period (95.6%) and the active period (96.7%). These initial data provide wildlife managers with a baseline from which a recovery period can be calculated. In areas where road mortality and human interface are high, this estimate should be adjusted to ensure the time for recovery is adequate. Further research is recommended over generations and age-classes to better inform management of this protected species.
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