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1 July 2000 VARIATION IN FORAGING AND PARENTAL BEHAVIOR OF KING CORMORANTS
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Abstract
We studied sexual and individual differences in foraging and parental behavior of King Cormorants (Phalacrocorax albiventer) during the brood-rearing period at Macquarie Island. King Cormorants exhibit sexual dimorphism in size, with males being 16% heavier than females. Females foraged mainly in the morning and males in the afternoon. Five females were shallow divers (1.9 to 6.8 m), and seven females were deep divers (19.6 to 28.0 m); males dived deeper (15.6 to 44.2 m) than both groups of females. The amount of time spent on the bottom (“bottom time”) relative to the dive cycle was higher for shallow-diving females (x̄ = 40 ± SD of 13%) than for males (x̄ = 26 ± 4%) and deep-diving females (x̄ = 27 ± 3%). Total daily dive time and bottom time per day did not differ significantly among groups because shallow-diving females dived more often (x̄ = 211 ± 81 dives per day) than males (x̄ = 68 ± 21) and deep-diving females (x̄ = 70 ± 7). Provisioning rate, trip duration, and proportion of time at sea did not differ significantly for males, deep-diving females, and shallow-diving females. Females, especially shallow divers, compensated for their shallow and short dives with more frequent dives. Consequently, male and female King Cormorants provisioned their chicks at similar rates despite large individual variation in foraging behavior.
Akiko Kato, Yutaka Watanuki, Isao Nishiumi, Maki Kuroki, Peter Shaughnessy and Yasuhiko Naito "VARIATION IN FORAGING AND PARENTAL BEHAVIOR OF KING CORMORANTS," The Auk 117(3), (1 July 2000). https://doi.org/10.1642/0004-8038(2000)117[0718:VIFAPB]2.0.CO;2
Received: 4 January 1999; Accepted: 1 January 2000; Published: 1 July 2000
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