Male Lance-tailed Manakins (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) perform multi-male courtship displays for females. To characterize the behavioral repertoire and the lek spatial organization of this species, I observed lekking males on Isla Boca Brava, Chiriquí Province, Panamá. Breeding began in March and continued through June, though courtship displays were recorded as late as November. Males were active throughout the day at display areas on the dispersed lek. Display areas were spaced 102 ± 30 m apart and averaged 2,480 ± 1,060 m2 in area (range: 525–4,500 m2; n = 24 display areas). The behavioral repertoire of Lance-tailed Manakins included 11 dance display elements, 7 common vocalizations, and 2 types of male-male duet songs. Duet songs and multimale dances for females were cooperative efforts by male pairs and included display elements that were never performed during courtship displays by solitary males. However, males performed both cooperative and entirely solo displays for females that ended in successful copulation, which suggests that cooperation is not obligate in this species, at least on the level of individual displays. Two sonations, or nonvocal communicative sounds, were noted during courtship displays: low-amplitude pulses of noise produced in rapid sets of 7–30 clicks during slow flight displays, and a low-frequency woosh produced at the nadir of swoop displays. The Lance-tailed Manakin display repertoire provides information useful in comparative analyses of the origin and evolution of display behavior within the manakin clade and in studies of the adaptive consequences of individual behavior within this species.
Exhibición Cooperativa y Comportamiento de Asambleas de Cortejo en Chiroxiphia lanceolata