Double sampling involves combining information from inexpensive rapid counts with intensive complete counts to provide an efficient population estimate. This technique is a valuable approach for calibrating population indices based on incomplete counts and improving the precision of monitoring studies. Data collected through a double-sampling protocol can be analyzed with either a ratio or a regression estimator. The ratio estimator is recommended when the relationship of the actual count to the rapid count is a straight line through origin, which may not be valid when surveying populations that have a small number of individuals per site and a low detection probability. In such situations, the regression estimator may be more appropriate. I investigated the properties of these two different estimators through a simulation study and tabulated sample sizes to control bias of the population average and standard error. Further, I used the results to evaluate when double sampling is a cost-effective design and how to design surveys that meet precision requirements. The design process is illustrated with the Spring Eastern Waterfowl Survey, which shows that double sampling is not always appropriate.
Directives pour l’utilisation de l’échantillonnage double dans le suivi des populations d’oiseaux