While foraging, animals often trade off between food and safety, reducing feeding in response to increased predation risk. This response, however, may not be a viable option for animals that are energetically compromised. Many single-species studies have shown that hungry animals select habitats within which foraging opportunities are greater even if predation pressures are higher, but it is unclear whether these patterns can be extrapolated to entire communities. Here, we examined the stopover habitat use of 28 frugivorous landbird species along the coast of Maine, USA, during an energetically demanding period of the annual cycle, fall migration. Across 6 stopover sites, we determined whether or not a tradeoff existed between using safe habitat patches (patches with high woody plant stem density) and patches with high food resources (patches with high fruit abundance). Controlling for raptor abundance at a site, landbird migrants were captured at higher rates in sites where no tradeoff existed, suggesting that birds avoided staying in sites where there was a predation risk–foraging tradeoff. At all sites, regardless of the presence or absence of a tradeoff, longer-distance migrants used patches with high food availability more frequently than shorter-distance migrants; patch use by shorter-distance migrants was explained by habitat cover alone. Our findings suggest that, for the Gulf of Maine, birds reduce predation risk at the scale of a stopover site, and differences in habitat selection at finer patch scales are mediated by migration strategy.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 132 • No. 4