The neotropical liverwort, Plagiochila rutilans Lindenb., is conspecific with P. remotifolia Hampe & Gottsche, P. farlowii Steph., P. harrisana Steph, and P. organensis Herzog. Plagiochila standleyi Carl is reduced to a variety of P. rutilans. Plagiochila gymnocalycina (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Mont. and P. portoricensis Hampe & Gottsche (= P. simplex (Sw.) Lindenb.) are excluded from the synonymy of P. rutilans. Plagiochila rutilans var. liebmanniana Gottsche is a synonym of P. crispabilis Lindenb.; P. rutilans var. laxa Lindenb. and var. angustifolia Herzog are conspecific with P. gymnocalycina. Sporophytes of P. rutilans are described for the first time. Fresh material of P. rutilans exhibits a distinct odor of peppermint caused by the presence of several menthane monoterpenoids, principally pulegone. NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) fingerprints and GC-MS data indicate that the lipophilic secondary metabolite profiles are distinct for the two varieties accepted in this study.
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